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Anti-Semitism in who writes scholarly articles Hanze Sciences, the World Today Essay. How To A Good Summary Essay Washington (INTO)! The Academy Award winning movie “The Gentleman’s Agreement” directed by Elia Kazan centered on the social issue of anti-Semitism. The movie centered on Phil Green, a journalist who was tasked to write assertive articles about anti-Semitism. In order to gain as much information as he could, Green decided to pose as a Jew. Throughout the movie, he not only experienced the prejudices that Jewish people face, but also how these anti-Jewish treatments are taken for who writes journal University Sciences, granted (MSN Movies). Anti-Semitism has been defined as the evaluating American Heritage School, hatred towards Jews and scholarly journal Hanze University Sciences its manifestation through verbal abuse, physical abuse, or damage to the property and institutions of Jews which causes pain, discomfort and fear (“Executive Summary”, 7; “Report on Global Anti-Semitism”; Tuchman, 13, “’Working Definition’ of write essay Soleil, Anti-Semitism”). Perhaps the greatest example of anti-Semitism was the Holocaust of the Jews in Germany during the Second World War in which Adolf Hitler harshly persecuted and murdered six million Jews and destroyed five thousand Jewish communities (“History of the Holocaust – An Introduction”).
Since the journal Hanze of Applied Sciences, start of the 21st century, there has been an increase in the frequency and severity of anti-Semitic events that the number of incidents had reached its highest point in 2006 over the last sixteen years (“Global Rise in Anti-Semitism”, 13). In fact, anti-Semitism today is rampant all over the world, unlike the Holocaust incident in World War II which was localized. In Argentina, for example, over 580 anti-Semitic incidents have been reported in compare and contrast Lowell — UMass Lowell, 2006 ranging from bomb threats to physical attacks of Jews and desecration of Jewish graves (Braylan). Incidents such as those happening in Argentina have been documented by the Anti-Defamation League are present in other countries such as Germany, the United Kingdom, and Australia to scholarly journal University name a few (“Global Anti-Semitism: Selected Incidents Around the World in best essay company, 2006”; “Report on Global Anti-Semitism”). As a result of these anti-Semitic activities, other violent and prejudicial campaigns have risen, complicating further the anti-Semitic concern worldwide. These include prejudice and hatred towards Islam called Islamophobia, towards Christians called Christianophobia and the condemnation of Israel’s rights to exist as a Jewish stated, or anti-Zionism (“Executive Summary”, 7; “Measuring Improvement since June 2004”, 14).
These new acts of hatred, especially anti-Zionism, could have been a result of the various political issues surrounding Israel and its governmental policies as well as Jews who have developed feelings of hatred and degradation towards the cultures and who writes scholarly journal articles Hanze University of Applied religions of those who have done acts of anti-Semitism towards them. This was exemplified by a professor at Columbia University in New York who antagonized a Jewish student claiming that she had no right to express her opinion about the Israeli-Palestine Arab issues because her eyes were colored green and as such, cannot be a Semite (Stern, 23; Tobin, 30; Tuchman, 14). Disturbing as it may be, little could be done towards these acts, especially since most of the critical American Heritage, anti-Semitic acts, as well as other acts of hatred are more often than not done verbally. Various leaders have seen these as ways of expressing one’s position. In the United States, administrators are wary to reprimand both members of the faculty and the student body in reference to who writes journal Hanze University Sciences verbal anti-Semitic abuse since they believe that by reprimanding them, administrators would be hindering academic freedom and freedom of speech which is a violation of the First Amendment (Tobin, 32-33). Write University Of Massachusetts! Another reason is that academic leaders and community leaders themselves commit anti-Semitic acts. In the towns of Darien and New Canaan located in Fairfield, Connecticut, community leaders and members have been unwelcoming and even hostile towards families from a different race, religion, and culture other than White Protestants since doing otherwise would tarnish the socio-economic homogeneity image that led to positive ratings made by federal appraisers on their communities (Jackson, 194-195). One Jewish graduate student sent a letter to the Chancellor and several administrators of the University of California – Irvine in who writes articles, 2002 about Beau Soleil, her growing concern for who writes journal Sciences, her safety and security because of the growing anti-Semitic activities in the campus. Instead of addressing her grievance, one administrator advised her to go to the Counseling Center of the university “to help her work through her feelings. ” This is because they believed that these acts are problems that the evaluating critical thinking American School, administration does not need to deal with since it is the Jewish students themselves who have the scholarly articles Hanze of Applied, problem and that they should deal with the matter themselves (Tuchman, 15-16). In the province of Corrientes in how to essay for university Beau Soleil, Argentina, one senator stated that the bombing of the AMIA-DAIA in 1994 was self induced. Florentin Jimenez, a Church minister, was known to have stated that “Jews are the destructors of Jesus” (Braylan).
Lastly, attempts to address the issues during conferences in the United Nations to arrive with a resolution have been prevented by a majority vote (“Measuring Improvement since June 2004). In closing, there is no doubt that the “Gentleman’s Agreement” still happens today, protected rather thinly by scholarly journal articles of Applied Sciences freedom of expression laws. And Contrast Essay Of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas)! The issue of anti-Semitism is a two-faced coin. On the part of the victims, they view it as a form of persecution. Who Writes Scholarly University! On the part of the ones committing the critical, act and those not affected, it is merely an scholarly journal articles University of Applied expression of opinion, views and essay Lake the exercise of an who writes scholarly journal articles Hanze of Applied individual’s right to free speech. Unless state and community leaders open their eyes to the problem, address the issue and take action, anti-Semitism would not only remain a global issue, but would even encourage acts like this towards other cultures and how to write summary essay religion to spring out. Works Cited Braylan, Marisa. Report on Anti-Semitism in Argentina 2006. 13 August 2007. Anti- Defamation League Website. Scholarly Journal Hanze Of Applied! 21 January 2008. http://www. About School! adl. org/Anti_Semitism/ as_argentina_report_2006. pdf.
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. #8220;Report on Global Anti-Semitism. Who Writes Scholarly Journal University! #8221; 5 January 2005. U. S. Department of State Website. Best The Fessenden School! 21 January 2008. Scholarly Journal Hanze Sciences! http://www. state. How To For University Soleil! gov/g/drl/rls/40258. htm. #8220;Executive Summary. Journal Hanze University! #8221; The United Nations and Anti-Semitism. 1 November 2007. Yale University Website. 21 January 2008. http://www. yale. edu/yiisa/ UNW_002_report_final. pdf. #8220;Gentleman#8217;s Agreement: Synopsis. #8221; MSN Movies Website. 21 January 2008. http://movies. msn. com/movies/movie. aspx? m=483343affid=100037mp=syn. #8220;Global Anti-Semitism: Selected Incidents Around the World in 2006. #8221; Anti-Defamation League Website. 21 January 2008. http://www. adl. org/Anti_semitism/anti-semitism_global_incidents_2006. asp.
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The primary purpose of who writes journal Hanze of Applied Sciences a problem statement is to focus the attention of the problem solving team. However, if the focus of the company problem is scholarly journal Sciences, too narrow or the scope of the solution too limited the creativity and innovation of the writing company solution can be stifling. In project management, the problem statement is part of the who writes scholarly articles project charter. Write Compare Of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass. It lists what's essential about the scholarly journal Hanze of Applied project and enables the project manager to identify the project scope as well as the project stakeholders. A research-worthy problem statement is the description of an active challenge (i.e. problem) faced by researchers and/or practitioners that does not have adequate solutions available including the argumentation for best writing The Fessenden, its viability based on scholarly Hanze University of Applied Sciences, solid peer-reviewed sources as well as theoretical foundation.
The research-worthy problem statement should address all six questions: what, how, where, when, why, and essay teachers Shawnigan School, who. On the other hand, a statement of the problem is one or two sentences claim that outlines the articles Hanze University of Applied problem that the study addresses. Essay Teachers. The statement of the problem should briefly address the question: What is the problem that the research will address? Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in who writes scholarly articles Hanze of Applied Sciences, market research and further contexts. Qualitative researchers aim to best The Fessenden School, gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what , where , when . Hence, smaller but focused samples are more often needed, rather than large samples.
Qualitative methods produce information only on the particular cases studied, and any more general conclusions are only hypotheses (informative guesses). Quantitative methods can be used to verify which of such hypotheses are true. Until the scholarly journal Hanze University 20 1970s, the compare essay University Lowell (Navitas) phrase 'qualitative research' was used only to who writes scholarly journal articles Hanze University of Applied, refer to a discipline of write International anthropology or sociology. During the 1970s and who writes Hanze of Applied Sciences, 1980s qualitative research began to be used in other disciplines, and became a significant type of research in the fields of education studies, social work studies, women's studies, disability studies, information studies, management studies, nursing service studies, political science, psychology, communication studies, and The Fessenden School, many other fields. Qualitative research occurred in the consumer products industry during this period, with researchers investigating new consumer products and product positioning/advertising opportunities. The earliest consumer research pioneers including Gene Reilly of The Gene Reilly Group in Darien, CT, Jerry Schoenfeld of who writes scholarly articles University Sciences Gerald Schoenfeld Partners in Tarrytown, NY and Martin Calle of Calle Company, Greenwich, CT, also Peter Cooper in London, England, and Hugh Mackay in Mission, Australia. There continued to be disagreement about the proper place of qualitative versus quantitative research. In the late 1980s and 1990s after a spate of criticisms from the quantitative side, new methods of qualitative research evolved, to address the perceived problems with reliability and imprecise modes of data analysis. During this same decade, there was a slowdown in traditional media advertising spending, so there was heightened interest in making research related to advertising more effective. To this date the present representative concept of antropy has a way and hence fort. In the last thirty years the acceptance of qualitative research by journal publishers and editors has been growing.
Prior to that time many mainstream journals were far more likely to publish research articles based upon the natural sciences and which featured quantitative analysis, than they were to publish articles based on how to a good summary Washington State, qualitative methods. Distinctions from quantitative research. (In simplified terms - Qualitative means a non-numerical data collection or explanation based on the attributes of the journal articles University Sciences graph or source of data. For example, if you are asked to write a good essay Washington, explain in qualitative terms a thermal image displayed in multiple colours, then you would explain the colour differences rather than the heat's numerical value.) First, in qualitative research, cases can be selected purposefully, according to whether or not they typify certain characteristics or contextual locations.
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Perhaps the most traditional division between the uses of qualitative and quantitative research in the social sciences is that qualitative methods are used for exploration (i.e., hypothesis-generating) or for explaining puzzling quantitative results. Quantitative methods, by contrast, are used to test hypotheses. This is because establishing content validity a€” do measures measure what a researcher thinks they measure? a€” is seen as one of the strengths of qualitative research. Some consider quantitative methods to provide more representative, reliable and precise measures through focused hypotheses, measurement tools and applied mathematics. By contrast, qualitative data is usually difficult to evaluating American, graph or display in mathematical terms. Qualitative research is often used for scholarly journal articles of Applied Sciences, policy and Shawnigan Lake School, program evaluation research since it can answer certain important questions more efficiently and effectively than quantitative approaches. This is particularly the case for understanding how and why certain outcomes were achieved (not just what was achieved) but also for answering important questions about relevance, unintended effects and impact of programs such as: Were expectations reasonable? Did processes operate as expected? Were key players able to who writes University of Applied Sciences, carry out their duties?
Did the company School program cause any unintended effects? Qualitative approaches have the advantage of allowing for more diversity in responses as well as the capacity to adapt to who writes scholarly journal articles University Sciences, new developments or issues during the research process itself. While qualitative research can be expensive and best essay School, time-consuming to conduct, many fields of research employ qualitative techniques that have been specifically developed to provide more succinct, cost-efficient and timely results. Financial statement analysis (or financial analysis ) refers to an assessment of the viability, stability and profitability of a business, sub-business or project. It is Sciences, performed by professionals who prepare reports using ratios that make use of information taken from financial statements and other reports. Essay Washington. These reports are usually presented to top management as one of their bases in making business decisions. Based on these reports, management may: Continue or discontinue its main operation or part of its business; Make or purchase certain materials in the manufacture of its product; Acquire or rent/lease certain machineries and equipment in the production of its goods; Issue stocks or negotiate for a bank loan to increase its working capital; Make decisions regarding investing or lending capital; Other decisions that allow management to make an scholarly journal University, informed selection on various alternatives in compare essay Lowell — UMass (Navitas), the conduct of its business. Financial analysts often assess the firm's:
1. Profitability - its ability to earn income and sustain growth in both short-term and long-term. A company's degree of profitability is usually based on the income statement, which reports on the company's results of operations; 2. Solvency - its ability to pay its obligation to creditors and other third parties in the long-term; 3. Who Writes Scholarly Articles Hanze Of Applied Sciences. Liquidity - its ability to maintain positive cash flow, while satisfying immediate obligations; Both 2 and 3 are based on write personal essay Sherborne International, the company's balance sheet, which indicates the financial condition of a business as of a given point in time. 4. Journal Hanze. Stability - the firm's ability to remain in best School, business in the long run, without having to scholarly journal Hanze of Applied Sciences, sustain significant losses in the conduct of its business. Assessing a company's stability requires the use of both the how to for university College income statement and the balance sheet, as well as other financial and non-financial indicators. Past Performance - Across historical time periods for the same firm (the last 5 years for example), Future Performance - Using historical figures and certain mathematical and scholarly, statistical techniques, including present and future values, This extrapolation method is the main source of errors in financial analysis as past statistics can be poor predictors of future prospects. Critical Thinking Heritage. Comparative Performance - Comparison between similar firms. These ratios are calculated by dividing a (group of) account balance(s), taken from the balance sheet and / or the income statement, by another, for scholarly journal articles Hanze of Applied Sciences, example : n / equity =ROE Net income / total assets = return on assets Stock price / earnings per share = P/E-ratio. Comparing financial ratios is merely one way of conducting financial analysis.
Financial ratios face several theoretical challenges: They say little about the firm's prospects in write a good essay State University, an absolute sense. Their insights about relative performance require a reference point from other time periods or similar firms. One ratio holds little meaning. As indicators, ratios can be logically interpreted in at least two ways.
One can partially overcome this problem by combining several related ratios to paint a more comprehensive picture of the firm's performance. Seasonal factors may prevent year-end values from being representative. A ratio's values may be distorted as account balances change from the who writes scholarly journal University beginning to the end of an accounting period. Use average values for such accounts whenever possible. Financial ratios are no more objective than the accounting methods employed. Changes in School, accounting policies or choices can yield drastically different ratio values. They fail to account for journal articles Hanze University, exogenous factors like investor behavior that are not based upon evaluating thinking American Heritage, economic fundamentals of the firm or the general economy (fundamental analysis) . Financial analysts can also use percentage analysis which involves reducing a series of figures as a percentage of some base amount. For example, a group of items can be expressed as a percentage of net income. When proportionate changes in who writes scholarly articles University, the same figure over a given time period expressed as a percentage is known as horizontal analysis. Vertical or common-size analysis, reduces all items on a statement to a a€?common sizea€? as a percentage of a good summary essay State some base value which assists in comparability with other companies of different sizes . Another method is comparative analysis.
This provides a better way to determine trends. Comparative analysis presents the same information for two or more time periods and is presented side-by-side to allow for who writes scholarly Hanze University of Applied, easy analysis.. An example: Algorithm specification of addition m+n. Choice of machine model: There is and contrast University, no a€?besta€?, or a€?preferreda€? model. The Turing machine, while considered the standard, is notoriously awkward to use.
And different problems seem to require different models to study them. Many researchers have observed these problems, for example: a€?The principal purpose of this paper is to offer a theory which is closely related to scholarly journal Hanze, Turing's but is more economical in the basic operationsa€? (Wang (1954) p. 63) a€?Certain features of Turing machines have induced later workers to propose alternative devices as embodiments of what is to be meant by effective computability. a Turing machine has a certain opacity, its workings are known rather than seen. Further a Turing machine is evaluating American, inflexible . a Turing machine is slow in (hypothetical) operation and, usually complicated. This makes it rather hard to design it, and even harder to investigate such matters as time or storage optimization or a comparison between efficiency of two algorithms.a€? (Melzak (1961) p. 281) Shepherdson-Sturgis (1963) proposed their register-machine model because a€?these proofs [using Turing machines] are complicated and tedious to follow for two reasons: (1) A Turing machine has only who writes journal Hanze Sciences one head. (2) It has only one tape. a€? They were in search of a€?a form of idealized computer which is sufficiently flexible for one to be able to convert an intuitive computational procedure into a program for such a machinea€? (p. 218). a€?I would prefer something along the lines of the best essay writing company random access computers of Angluin and Valiant [as opposed to the pointer machine of SchA¶nhage]a€? (Gurivich 1988 p. 6) a€?Showing that a function is Turing computable directly. is rather laborious . we introduce an ostensibly more flexible kind of idealized machine, an abacus machine. a€? (Boolos-Burgess-Jeffrey 2002 p.45).
About all that one can insist upon who writes scholarly journal articles Hanze University of Applied Sciences, is that the thinking American Heritage algorithm-writer specify in exacting detail (i) the machine model to be used and who writes scholarly articles Hanze University, (ii) its instruction set. Atomization of the instruction set: The Turing machine model is evaluating thinking Heritage School, primitive, but not as primitive as it can be. As noted in who writes Hanze, the above quotes this is a source of concern when studying complexity and equivalence of algorithms. Although the observations quoted below concern the Random access machine model a€“ a Turing-machine equivalent a€“ the thinking Heritage School problem remains for journal of Applied, any Turing-equivalent model: a€?. there hardly exists such a thing as an a€?innocenta€™ extension of the standard RAM model in the uniform time measure; either one only has additive arithmetic, or one might as well include all multiplicative and/or bitwise Boolean instructions on small operands. a€? (van Emde Boas (1992) p. 26) a€?Since, however, the computational power of a RAM model seems to write personal, depend rather sensitively on the scope of its instruction set, we nevertheless will have to go into who writes Hanze detail. a€?One important principle will be to admit only such instructions which can be said to be of an write a good essay University, atomistic nature. We will describe two versions of the so-called successor RAM, with the successor function as the only arithmetic operation. the RAM0 version deserves special attention for its extreme simplicity; its instruction set consists of only a few one letter codes, without any (explicit) addressing.a€? (SchA¶nhage (1980) p.494) Example #1: The most general (and original) Turing machine a€“ single-tape with left-end, multi-symbols, 5-tuple instruction format a€“ can be atomized into the Turing machine of Boolos-Burgess-Jeffrey (2002) a€“ single-tape with no ends, two symbols (where B symbolizes blank square and | symbolizes marked square), and a 4-tuple instruction format. Who Writes Articles Hanze University. This model in turn can be further atomized into a Post-Turing machinea€“ single-tape with no ends, two symbols , and a 0- and essay company The Fessenden, 1-parameter instruction set ( e.g. Journal Articles Of Applied. ). Example #2: The RASP can be reduced to a RAM by teachers moving its instructions off the tape and (perhaps with translation) into its finite-state machine a€?tablea€? of instructions, the scholarly journal articles Hanze Sciences RAM stripped of its indirect instruction and reduced to a 2- and 3-operand a€?abacusa€? register machine; the how to essay for university abacus in turn can be reduced to the 1- and 2-operand Minsky (1967)/Shepherdson-Sturgis (1963) counter machine, which can be further atomized into who writes journal of Applied Sciences the 0- and 1-operand instructions of SchA¶nhage (and even a 0-operand SchA¶nhage-like instruction set is how to write a good summary University, possible). Cost of atomization : Atomization comes at a (usually severe) cost: while the resulting instructions may be a€?simplera€?, atomization (usually) creates more instructions and the need for more computational steps . As shown in the following example the increase in computation steps may be significant (i.e. Who Writes Journal Of Applied. orders of School magnitude a€“ the following example is a€?tamea€?), and atomization may (but not always, as in the case of the Post-Turing model) reduce the articles University of Applied usability and readability of a€?the machine codea€?. About Teachers Shawnigan. For more see Turing tarpit.
Example: The single register machine instruction INC 3 a€“ increment the contents of who writes journal articles Hanze University Sciences register #3, i.e. increase its count by 1 a€“ can be atomized into the 0-parameter instruction set of SchA¶nhage, but with the equivalent number of steps to accomplish the best writing company School task increasing to 7; this number is directly related to the register number a€?na€? i.e. 4+n): More examples can be found at the pages Register machine and Random access machine where the addition of convenience instructions CLR h and who writes journal articles Hanze University of Applied Sciences, COPY h 1 ,h 1 are shown to reduce the number of steps dramatically. Indirect addressing is the Lake School other significant example. Precise specification of Turing-machine algorithm m+n.
As described in scholarly journal of Applied, Algorithm characterizations per the specifications of how to write essay for university College Boolos-Burgess-Jeffrey (2002) and Sipser (2006), and with a nod to the other characterizations we proceed to specify: (i) Number format : unary strings of marked squares (a marked square signfied by the symbol 1) separated by single blanks (signified by the symbol B) e.g. a€?2,3a€? = B11B111B (ii) Machine type : Turing machine: single-tape left-ended or no-ended, 2-symbol , 4-tuple instruction format. Scholarly Articles University Sciences. (iii) Head location : See more at a€?Implementation Descriptiona€? below. A symbolic representation of the head's location in the tape's symbol string will put the current state to the right of the scanned symbol. Blank squares may be included in this protocol. Best Company The Fessenden. The state's number will appear with brackets around it, or sub-scripted. The head is shown as.
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an essay sample Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on who writes of Applied, the highlighted text for comments about how to essay Sherborne academic writing conventions; click on who writes scholarly journal Hanze University Sciences, the notes in the margin for Sherborne International, commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is scholarly journal articles of Applied, particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Critical Thinking American! Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations.
Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for scholarly journal University Sciences, the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by essay Sherborne International the young.
The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only who writes scholarly journal articles of Applied about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and about teachers Lake, thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in journal articles University of Applied Sciences, a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on write essay of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass, the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of who writes scholarly journal articles Hanze University of Applied, personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family.
A strong version of this view is put forward by best company Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in scholarly journal articles Hanze of Applied, their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to how to write essay International Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is scholarly journal articles Hanze University, responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young?
The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only how to write College Soleil do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on journal articles, average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an how to personal International, average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the who writes Hanze University of Applied, idea of write a good summary Washington University, having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the who writes scholarly articles Hanze University of Applied Sciences, changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003).
According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is how to a good State University (INTO), claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. Who Writes Scholarly University Of Applied Sciences! For one, the compare and contrast essay of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass, lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement.
Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and scholarly journal articles Hanze, concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against how to write essay for university a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and articles University, class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of company The Fessenden, partnering is now converging towards that of scholarly articles Hanze University Sciences, tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for a good summary essay Washington State University, women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Scholarly Journal University Of Applied Sciences! Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent.
In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in how to essay for university, having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an who writes scholarly Hanze University of Applied Sciences, economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on how to write essay Sherborne, the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for journal articles University Sciences, many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of essay Washington State University (INTO), decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to who writes journal the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in best writing company, our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in who writes articles, our environment, we usually err on essay about School, the side of safety in order to avert risk. Journal Hanze University Of Applied Sciences! McDonald points to — UMass Lowell (Navitas) a rise in who writes journal Hanze of Applied, economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of evaluating critical thinking American, booms and busts. Who Writes Scholarly Journal Articles Sciences! Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of essay writing company School, perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per articles Sciences, cent of critical American School, men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year.
Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of who writes articles Hanze University of Applied Sciences, parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to and contrast of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas) increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to who writes journal articles Hanze University of Applied Sciences bear the brunt of the write Washington (INTO), decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the who writes scholarly, world seem to have an best The Fessenden, increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents.
If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on the need for who writes articles Hanze University of Applied Sciences, better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for how to International, more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and who writes articles University of Applied Sciences, raise the living standards of the teachers Shawnigan, young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to who writes Hanze University know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Evaluating Thinking American Heritage School! Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. Who Writes! 7/04/02.
Birrell, B. How To Summary Essay Washington State (INTO)! (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Journal Articles Hanze! Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. College! Genda, Y. (2000). A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp.
47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the who writes scholarly articles Hanze University of Applied, challenge of an teachers Shawnigan Lake School, aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. Articles Of Applied Sciences! McDonald, P. Write Compare Of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell! (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of journal articles Hanze University, public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the how to Sherborne International, European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003).
Student debt: A HECS on articles Hanze University of Applied, fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the and contrast of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell (Navitas), architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the scholarly articles Sciences, #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an write and contrast University — UMass (Navitas), essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to scholarly Hanze University of Applied Sciences be covered in the essay (ie. Write Compare And Contrast University Of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas)! why this is who writes articles Hanze University of Applied, happening).
Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. How To Washington State University! Hint: in who writes journal Hanze Sciences, the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the how to for university Beau Soleil, topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the who writes scholarly journal articles of Applied, paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence.
After giving some background in paragraph 2, the essay about Shawnigan, student reminds the who writes journal University of Applied Sciences, reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for about teachers Shawnigan, declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on scholarly articles Hanze of Applied, the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Critical American Heritage! Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald.
Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to scholarly journal articles of Applied Sciences do this. But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to write for university Soleil structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. Scholarly Journal Hanze Of Applied! (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Critical Thinking American Heritage School! Hint: the scholarly articles of Applied Sciences, providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the how to Washington (INTO), second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in who writes of Applied, the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by American School the young.
The student now elaborates on this part of the who writes scholarly journal University, argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to essay Shawnigan Lake any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for who writes scholarly Sciences, the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by Heritage McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of who writes scholarly articles Hanze Sciences, a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an argument in your essay.
But it is equally important to provide support for summary State University (INTO), what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . Who Writes Scholarly Hanze University Of Applied! He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the write College Soleil, problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach.
Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out journal Hanze Sciences, thus: Introduction Background to how to write Sherborne issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing.
You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to who writes journal articles Sciences a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to write compare essay University Lowell — UMass (Navitas) be relevant to your argument. Notice how the student uses I in journal articles Hanze of Applied Sciences, his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the best essay writing The Fessenden, impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work.
But in fact they can often be found in who writes journal University of Applied, academic writing. In general, the evaluating American Heritage School, best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is who writes Hanze University, not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the essay for university Soleil, same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to journal articles Hanze of Applied keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. How To Personal! One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source.
These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in scholarly journal articles University, Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is essay writing, dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the who writes scholarly articles of Applied Sciences, ideas of School, a writer, you need to who writes scholarly journal articles use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to best essay The Fessenden Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from who writes scholarly journal articles of Applied certain language. State University (INTO)! eg. Who Writes Journal Articles Hanze University Of Applied Sciences! when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. How To Essay! In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for who writes journal, the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . How To Write College Beau Soleil! Being careful about the articles University of Applied, way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to essay use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence.
If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to scholarly journal change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in critical thinking, academic writing.
Notice the use of articles, reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in how to essay for university Soleil, the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. Journal University! It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear.
Quotes of more than one sentence in School, length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to scholarly journal Hanze provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title. Place: Publisher. It is how to write summary Washington State, becoming increasingly common for who writes, students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around.
Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.
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Essay: Data Acquisition and who writes journal Hanze Sciences Analysis – Curve fitting and Data Modelling. 1 Part 1: Track B: Linear Fitting Scheme to Find Best-Fit Values. In a linear regression problem, a mathematical model is used to examine the relationship between two variables i.e. the independent variables and dependent variable (the independent variable is Lake School, used to predict the dependent variable). This is achieved by using the least square method using excel plotting data values and drawing a straight line to derive the best fit values. A nonlinear graph was obtained on plotting the data points provided but the journal Hanze University Sciences, least square method applied obtained a linear graph with a straight line which estimated and minimized the write a good essay Washington University (INTO), squared difference between the total sum of the data values and model values. The aim of this coursework Part1, Track B is to carryout data analysis assessment with respect to scholarly University Sciences linear model fitting by manual calculation working obtaining the best-fit values with the decay transient data provided in table 1 below which is implemented using excel. Time (sec) Response (v) Table 1.1: data for decay transient. The data in write and contrast essay University — UMass Lowell (Navitas), the table 1.1 above represents decay transient which can be modelled as an exponential function of who writes scholarly journal Sciences, time as shown below: The equation above is nonlinear; to make it linear the natural logarithm method is applied.
From the mathematical equation of a straight line. But Inex = x; eInx = x. Applying natural logarithm method to the equation obtained two coefficients InV0 and how to write a good State University (INTO) t/?? which represent a0 and a1 respectively from equation (1.4) The normal equation for a straight line can be written in matrix form as: This is separated to give. From (1.9) the general linear least squares fit equation is given as. The main purpose is to calculate for (InV0 and t/??) which are the who writes of Applied, coefficients of the linear equation in write — UMass Lowell, (1.7).
Matrix method using excel is used to achieve this by who writes articles University of Applied Sciences, finding values for [Z],[Z^T ],[Z^T ][Z],[Z^T ][Y],’and[[Z^T ] [Z]]’^(-1). The table below shows the calculated values for InV when natural logarithm was applied to the response V using excel. Table 1.2: Excel table showing calculated values for thinking American School InV. The transpose of who writes scholarly articles University of Applied, [Z] is given as. The product of write — UMass Lowell, [Z^T ][Z] is given as. The inverse [[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) of the matrix [Z^T ][Z] is given as.
The product of the transpose of [Z], [Z^T ] and [Y] (InV) is given as. To obtain the journal articles University Sciences, product of [[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) and [Z^T ][Y] was calculated to give. InV0 = 0.0626; and 1/?? = -28.8434. V0 = exp(0.0626) = 1.0646; and ?? = 1/-28.8434 = 0.03467. Table 1.3: Excel table showing calculated values for about Shawnigan School InV [Y] and InV(t) [Y] Table 1.4: Diagram of Excel calculation for curve fitting. Figure 1.1: Diagram of transient decay for response V and who writes journal articles Hanze University of Applied response V(t) Figure 1.2: Diagram of transient decay for response V and response V(t) The solutions to this linear regression exercise was achieved by manually calculating the generalized normal equation for the least square fit using the matrix method and teachers Lake Microsoft excel program obtaining the unknown values of the coefficients V0 and who writes journal articles Hanze University of Applied Sciences . The method provides accurate results and the best fit values obtained show the how to write Sherborne, relationship between the straight line response and journal articles Hanze University of Applied the transient line response shown in figure above and is seen to have given. 2 Part 2: Track B: Type K thermocouple. The thermocouple is essay Sherborne, a sensor that is used to who writes articles University Sciences measure temperature and best essay is commonly used in many industries.
For this lab work, a Type K thermocouple is used to acquire a first order transient data (non-linear) response to a temperature change, a signal conditioning element called the AD595 thermocouple amplifier is used to scholarly articles University Sciences improve thermocouple signal since it produced a low voltage output proportional to the input temperature, a data acquisition device the NI-USB 6008 is used to acquire signals from the signal conditioning circuit, a resistor-capacitor (RC) low-pass filter is built for best essay reduce the frequency and noise of the signal generated and further investigations and analysis are carried out. In this part, the non-linear regression was used to obtain the transient response of articles Hanze Sciences, thermocouple signal using Labview program. The aim of the assignment is to produce a Labview program which can obtain transient real data values from a Type K thermocouple which is a sensor that produces voltage by the differential temperature its conductors sense (i.e. a first order response) followed by best writing company, a non- linear model fitting procedure which allows the who writes journal University of Applied, user capture the thermocouple initial first order response to a rising input temperature and an appropriate response function model to a good the transient response. Who Writes Hanze University Sciences! The program displays the transient data, fitted model response and calculated model parameters. Reason of the choice of model response. The model output transient response obtained from the input (temperature) of the evaluating American Heritage School, Type K thermocouple was a first order can be defined as having only journal articles Hanze Sciences s to the power of one in the first order transfer function which is characterised with no overshoot because the order of any system is determined by the power of s in the transfer function denominator and has a transfer function as 1/(??s+1) for a unit step signal of 1/s in the Laplace transform domain or s domain and how to write summary State University is given as. Partial fraction method is used to find the output signal Y(t) to give.
A = [s * Y(s)] for s = 0 = 1. Therefore the output signal in the time domain is given as: Substituting the output response V(t) for Y(t) , the equation (2.6) can also be re-written as: Assuming for a given input temperature T0 an output response V0 was derived and for a given increase in temperature T1 an output response voltage V1 was derived, so therefore the output voltage for scholarly articles Hanze University Sciences the change in voltage relative to the change in temperature is given as: Equation (3.1) is similar to the general nonlinear model given as: F(x) = V(t) ; a = ??V; b = 1/??; and c = V0. The thermocouples voltage output is nonlinear given a first order response curve (Digilent Inc., 2010)
Table 2:1: showing thermocouple output voltage first order response curve. Explanation on the principles of non-linear regression analysis. The principle of non-linear regression is a method that can be used to show how the response and the unknown values (predictors) relate to each other by following a functional form i.e. Essay About Teachers Shawnigan! relating Y as being a function of x or more variables. This is to say that the non-linear equation we are trying to predict rely non-linearly mainly upon one or more variables or parameters. The Gauss Newton Method is a method used to solve non-linear regression by applying Taylor series expansion to express a non-linear expression in a linear for form. A non-linear regression compared to a linear regression cannot be manipulated or solved directly to get the equation; it can be exhausting calculating for this as an iterative approach is used. A non-linear regression model is given as: Yi = f(xi, a0, a1) + ei. F = function of (xi, a0, a1) For this assignment the non-linear regression model is given as. F(x) = V(t) ; a0 = ??V; b = (-t)/??; and e = V0.
Description of measurement task. The intent of the measurement experiment was to seek, identify, analyse the components of who writes scholarly articles, that make measurement task and to examine the transient response from the Type k thermocouple. It analyses the method, instruments and best The Fessenden series of actions in obtaining results from measurements. Who Writes Scholarly Journal Articles University Sciences! Equipment such as the Type K thermocouple, NI-PXI-6070E 12 bit I/O card, AD595 thermocouple amplifier, and a Labview software program which was used for calculation of model parameters were used to carry out this task. The measurement task is to introduce the Type K thermocouple sensing junction in essay writing School, hot water to analyse the temperature change and the corresponding voltage response is generated and observed on scholarly University of Applied, a Labview program. This activity is executed frequently to best The Fessenden acquire the best fitted model response and parameters. Choice of signal conditioning elements.
The choice of a signal conditioning element used in scholarly articles Hanze Sciences, measurement is how to essay University (INTO), important because the signal conditioning element used can either enhance the quality and efficiency of a measurement system or reduce its performance. The AD595 thermocouple amplifier is the choice signal conditioning element used with the Type K thermocouple for this experiment because it is has a built in ice-point compensation (cold junction compensator) and amplifier which is used as a reference junction to compare and who writes scholarly Hanze of Applied Sciences amplify the how to essay for university College, output voltage of the Type K thermocouple which generates a small output voltage corresponding to the input temperature. AD595AQ chip used is pre-calibrated by laser trimming to correspond to the Type K thermocouple characteristic feature with an accuracy of ??3oC, operating between (-55 oC – 125 oC) and are available with 14 pins/low cost cerdip. The AD595 device resolves this issue by providing amplification of who writes journal articles Hanze of Applied Sciences, low output voltage (gain), linearization of the nonlinear output response of the thermocouple so as to change to the equivalent input temperature, and provide cold junction compensation to improve the performance and critical Heritage School accuracy of thermocouple measurements. Equipment provided for measurement. There were three equipment provided for the measurement exercise and they include: Type K thermocouple. The Type K thermocouple (chromel/alumel) is the most commonly used transducer to measure temperature with an electromotive force (e.m.f) of 41 microvolts per degree(??V/ oC) which is nonlinear and the voltage produced between its two dissimilar alloys changes with temperature i.e. the who writes scholarly journal University of Applied, input temperature corresponds to the output voltage it generates. It is cheap to buy with the ability to perform in company The Fessenden, rugged environmental conditions and is calibrated to operate at wide temperature range of scholarly Hanze University, about -250 oC to 1370 oC. It is made of a constituent called nickel which is magnetic and essay for university Beau its magnetic component may change direction or deviate when subjected to a high enough temperature and can affect its accuracy.
Signal connector signal conditioner. Figure 2.2: Circuit diagram of a thermocouple, signal connector and signal conditioner. The NI-USB 6008 is who writes scholarly journal articles University of Applied Sciences, a National Instrument device that provides DAQ functionality for some applications like portable measurements, data logging and lab experiments. It is cheap for academic purposes and is used for more complicated measurement tasks. It has a ready to run data logger software which allows the evaluating thinking Heritage School, user to perform quick measurements and scholarly University can be configured by using Labview National Instruments software. It provides connection to 8 analog single-ended input channels (AI), 2 analog output channels (AO), 12 data input and output (I/O) channels, 32 bit counter bus with a very quick USB interface and are compatible with Labview 7.x, LabWindowsTM/CVI, and American Heritage Measurement Studio DAQ modules for visual Studio. Figure 2.3: NI-USB 6008 pin out. AD595 thermocouple amplifier. The AD595 thermocouple amplifier is a thermocouple amplifier and a cold junction compensator on scholarly Hanze of Applied, a small chip of semiconductor material (microchip or IC) which produces a high output of 10 mV/oC from the input signal of write essay for university College Beau Soleil, a thermocouple as a result of combining a cold junction reference with a pre-calibrated amplifier. It has an accuracy of ??10C and ??30C for the A and C performance grade version respectively and can be powered by a supply including +5V and a negative supply if temperatures below 00C are to be measured. It laser trimmer is journal Hanze of Applied, pre-calibrated so as to write a good summary essay (INTO) conform to who writes scholarly journal articles Sciences the Type k thermocouple specification and is available in 14-pin side brazed ceramic dips (Devices, 1999).
Figure 2.4: Block diagram showing AD595 in a functional circuit. Configuration of the I/O channel(s) The I/O channel(s) provide a way (path) for write for university College Beau communication between the input device (thermocouple sensor) and the output device (DAQ). Journal Articles Hanze University! The thermocouple senses temperature as input and sends the data to the DAQ which receives the data and displays the information through a computer on how to write essay College, the Labview front panel graph. The following explain the configuration of the DAQ for the thermocouple measurement: Channel Settings: this is used to select an I/O channel in the DAQ device either AI0 or AI1 can be chosen and rename to suit user. Signal Input Range: this is used to select the minimum and maximum voltage of the AD595 thermocouple amplifier which also helps to achieve better resolution of the NI-USB 6008 Data Acquisition Device. Scale Units: this is used to select the scale unit of the analog signal generated and since the thermocouples output signal measured corresponding to temperature is Voltage, then the Scaled unit chosen will be ‘Volts’
Terminal Configuration: this is used to choose terminal on the DAQ for which the signal conditioning circuit is connected. Custom Scaling: No scale was chosen since no custom scale was adopted. Acquisition Mode: this is used to select how the sample are played, the who writes journal articles University of Applied Sciences, continuous samples was chosen because it allows the DAQ to collect data signals continuously from the circuit until the user decides to stop. Samples to Read: this allows the user to choose how many samples to read depending on the frequency of the input signal generated. It is important to choose at least twice the evaluating critical School, frequency signal to acquire all the desire signals.
One thousand (2K) samples was chosen. Rate (Hz): this allows the user to choose the rate of the sample signals generated. Rate (Hz) 1k was chosen. Connection of Circuit to DAQ and Configuration of I/O channel(s) The connection of the circuit to the NI-USB 6008 data acquisition device was carried out by connecting two wires from the output voltage and ground of the journal articles Hanze, signal conditioning unit i.e. the AD595 device. The red wire from the signal conditioning unit was connected to the positive port of the analog input channel 0 (+AI0) of the DAQ device and the black wire from the ground was connected to teachers Shawnigan the negative port of the analog input channel 0 (-AI0) of the DAQ. The diagrams below show the connections between the signal conditioning circuit and journal Hanze the connector block (DAQ).
Figure 2.5: Picture showing the connection of the signal conditioning circuit with the DAQ. Description of the Labview VI. Labview is a National instrument programming system design software that is optimal for control measurements and provides an engineer with tools to test, solve practical problems in a short amount of time, and the design of control systems. It is less complex and very easy to use compared to other programming simulation applications. The Labview Virtual Instrument (VI) program includes the Front Panel and the Block diagram and for this lab experiment, it is used to examine and determine the compare and contrast University (Navitas), thermocouple frequency response and to carry out an analysis of the noise present in the filtered and unfiltered signal of the thermocouple voltage generated, displaying the result on its Graph indicators.
The description of the Labview VI Front Panel and Block diagram are as follows: Figure 2.6: Block diagram of the who writes scholarly articles Hanze University of Applied, Labview design. It is where a user can create the basic code for the Labview program. The program can be created when the block diagram is how to State (INTO), active by who writes scholarly journal Hanze of Applied, using the best writing company, functions palette which contains objects like structure, numeric, Boolean, string, array, cluster, time and dialog, file I/O, and advanced functions which can be added to the block diagram. It is a graphic user interface that allows the user to interact with the Labview program. It can appear in silver, classic, modern or system style. Scholarly Articles University Of Applied! The controls and indicators are located on the controls palette and used to how to State (INTO) build and add objects like numeric displays, graphs and charts, Boolean controls and indicators etc. to the front panel. It allows a user to configure, generate and who writes scholarly journal Hanze University acquire analog input signals from any one of the data acquisitions (DAQ) input channel. Evaluating Thinking American Heritage! For this experiment the signal conditioning circuit was connected to the analog input 0 channel of the NI-USB 6008 data acquisition device and the DAQ assistant is used to configure to DAQ so as to be able to acquire signals from the AD595 thermocouple amplifier.
The For loop like the journal Hanze University, while loop allows codes to compare essay of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) be executed repeatedly by executing a subdiagram a required number of scholarly journal articles Hanze of Applied, times (N). How To Write Summary University! The For loop is found on who writes articles Hanze University of Applied Sciences, the structure palette and can be placed on essay about Shawnigan, the block diagram. Who Writes Scholarly Articles Hanze University! It is made up of the a good State (INTO), count and iteration terminal. Trigger and Gate VI: It is journal articles of Applied Sciences, used to take out a part (segment) of a signal and its mode of critical American Heritage School, operation is who writes journal articles Hanze University of Applied Sciences, either based on a start or stop condition or can be static. Curve Fitting VI:
It is used to calculate and determine the best fit parameter values that best depict an input signal. It can be used for linear, non-linear, spline, quadratic and polynomial models type. It minimizing the weighted mean squared error between the initial and University (INTO) best fit response signal generated. For this experiment initial guesses were made for the coefficients of non-linear model used. It is a type of special indicator accepts different data types and who writes of Applied Sciences used to display an how to write a good Washington State University (INTO), array of input data or signals. In this case a waveform graph was used. It is used to carry out mathematical and arithmetic actions on numbers and converts numbers from one data type to who writes journal articles University of Applied Sciences another.
The multiply numeric function was used to Sherborne return the products of inputs. Figure 2.7: Configuration of Trigger and who writes scholarly journal articles Hanze University Gate. Figure 2.8: Curve fitting configuration. The diagram in figure 2.8 above is a window showing the configuration for curve fitting and the configuration steps are as follows: Model Type: Non-linear model was chosen because the signal observed is a first order response (non-linear) curve. Independent variable: t was the independent variable chosen. Maximum iterations: The default maximum iterations 500 is chosen. Non-linear model: The equation for the non-linear model a*( 1- exp'(-t/b)) ) + c. Initial guesses: Values for a, b, and essay School c were chosen to get the best fitting values for the curve. The values for a, b, and c are 15.000000, 0.040000, and 29.000000 respectively.
Figure 2.9: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 1st measurement. Figure 3.0: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 2nd measurement. Figure 3.1: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 3rd measurement. The diagrams in figures 2.9, 3.0 and who writes University 3.1 above show the transient response of the thermocouple after being inserted in warm water to get the best fit curve i.e. to replicate the how to essay for university College, actual thermocouple response curve. It is observed that with the who writes scholarly journal articles Hanze, use of the Trigger and Gate Express VI, the delay experienced in the in the three graphs were removed making the thermocouples signal response more appropriate providing a more decent best fit curve result.
Carrying out multiple measurements to get the write essay for university Beau Soleil, best fit curve reduces the time constants and produces a better response curve compared to taking one measurement. Who Writes Journal Articles Hanze University Of Applied Sciences! The table below shows the best writing company The Fessenden, results from the three measurement activities with their residual and mean squared error values. Model Parameters First Measurement(1st) Second Measurement(2nd) Third Measurement(3rd) a (0C) 21.4671 10.2373 8.60708. b (sec) 0.0232065 0.039578 0.0432934. c (0C) 32.1068 29.661 29.4745. Residual 0.666461 0.0357227 0.124069. Mean Squared Error 0.431833 0.0181012 0.0227711. Table 2.1: Showing results from the three measurements with best fit parameters mean squared error and who writes scholarly Residual for how to personal essay curve fitting.
From Table the who writes scholarly journal articles University of Applied, second measurement was observed to have the best fitting curve with the minimum residual and Mean Squared error that are closest to zero compared to the 1st and for university College Beau Soleil 3rd measurements. Who Writes Journal Hanze University Of Applied Sciences! The best fit parameter results of the second measurement will be inserted in the non-linear model equation which is given as: a is the change in temperature of thermocouple (??T) b is the how to write essay for university Beau Soleil, time constant (??) c is the initial temperature of the thermocouple (T0) Substituting values for a, b, and c of third measurement in the equation. Equation 3.7 above is the who writes articles University of Applied, non-linear model equation with best fit parameters for the thermocouple response signal at School every value of time (t). To achieve the output voltage response, the change in temperature and the initial temperature values from equation 3.7 need to who writes journal articles of Applied be converted to volts this can be obtained by essay company The Fessenden School, dividing the temperature value by 100 since 100oC is equal to 1V.
So the who writes Hanze University of Applied, resulting output voltage of the thermocouple is as follows: a = ??V; b =1/??; and c = V0. The curve fitting experiment using the Type K thermocouple, the AD595 signal conditioning device, and the NI-USB 6008 to compare essay University of Massachusetts Lowell acquire and display signals using Labview software was carried out successfully. Curve fitting of the transient response signal of the thermocouple was achieved by analysing and obtaining the transient response of the thermocouple and who writes articles University Sciences using a non-linear model implementing best fit values to replicate the response curve by subjecting the thermocouple to critical Heritage School temperature. This can be used to obtain the behaviour of an Hanze, input response signal and improve efficiency for how to essay Sherborne control systems. Cimbala, J. M., 2013. Dynamic System Response. [Online] [Accessed 10 March 2014]. Devices, A., 1999. Analog Devices. [Online] [Accessed 2 March 2015]. Digilent Inc., 2010. Introduction to First Order Responses. [Online] [Accessed 6 March 2014]. Search our thousands of essays:
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