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The Trans Asterisk and nursing critical, Why We Need To Stop Using It. A lot of times on social justice-oriented websites you’ll the word “trans” written with an asterisk, like “trans*”. It is thought that the addition of the assessing critical School asterisk was made by critical College dfab trans people who felt like trans women were talking about harvard review, their struggles too much and that there needed to thinking Brighton College, be more room in the community for everyone else, which is an issue on it’s own. But most people using the College asterisk don’t know this, and use it because they think that it makes the nursing thinking College term more inclusive of all identities under the “trans umbrella.” While this seems well-intentioned (and probably is,) it’s also incredibly problematic. You see, there is no “trans umbrella.” Trans (or transgender) is the umbrella term. Transgender means to identify as any gender other than–or in harvard busines College, addition to–the one you were assigned at birth (this includes identifying as multiple genders or no gender at all). That’s it! Saying that the asterisk is somehow “more inclusive” is nursing College like saying that some non-cisgender people aren’t “trans enough” to be called just trans. Often these people who apparently aren’t considered trans enough are trans women, non-binary people, non-op people, and a critique paper Ross School, those who do not experience dysphoria. People who insist that there is a trans umbrella often include cisgender crossdressers and critical, drag performers under the umbrella, and would like to include them in conversations about the issues and busines College, experiences of transgender people. Thinking College? The issue with this is that it’s an example of a critique cis people claiming ownership of a discussion on issues that they don’t experience.

Now don’t get me wrong, cis crossdressers and drag performers (especially dmab ones) do experience a lot of societal pressure for dressing in nursing thinking Brighton College, a way that is not acceptable for their sex. Completion Of Taunton? However, if they identify with the gender that they were assigned at critical birth, regardless of the clothing they wear, they are not transgender. Cisgender people don’t experience the same oppression that transgender people face every day, they don’t deal with a general population not believing in Warminster, or accepting their identity. It isn’t right for nursing thinking Brighton College a cis crossdresser or drag performer to say they share the same exact struggle as trans people, especially in how to write paragraph essay Hanze, a time when so few trans people’s voices are heard or taken seriously. Often times, the nursing critical thinking Brighton College asterisk after the word trans can also be used to writing Ross, invalidate certain trans identities and call them “not trans enough.” Like sexuality, gender is a gradient, and nursing, there are many identities in between “man” and “woman.” Just because someone doesn’t fit into one of the binaries doesn’t make them not trans. Writing A Critique Paper School? Being transgender just means identifying as any gender other than the nursing Brighton College one a person was assigned at birth. And if someone–for whatever reason–does not want surgery, that in no way makes their gender identity less valid. Some transgender people want surgery, and that’s perfectly fine for critical thinking podcast them.

But the ones who don’t are just as trans as the ones who do. There are transgender people in all shapes, sizes, identities, and nursing critical thinking Brighton College, presentations. I understand that most people using the trans asterisk don’t know the meaning behind it and assessing critical, are trying to be inclusive. The fact is, however, that it needlessly excludes and invalidates so many people. We need to do away with the asterisk, whose creation was a backlash against trans women, and whose existence tells so many people that they aren’t “trans enough.” The word transgender on its own means to identify as a gender other than the nursing critical thinking Brighton College one assigned at birth, and I don’t know why we’d need some asterisk to critical thinking Marangoni, make it any more inclusive. Wonderful drawings of trans people of varying identities done by Molly!! YES! Honestly I was always wondering what the difference between “trans” and “trans*” was on tumblr because those that used the asterisk always seemed more aggressive somehow.

This is nursing critical thinking Brighton so informative! I am going to share this everywhere. First off, I admire the illustrations. This is a cool article, but the thinking Warminster only thing that bugs me is the origin of the trans asterisk (*) — It was always my understanding that the critical thinking Brighton asterisk was a response to completion, certain non binary identified people feeling left out of the term, and was a means to nursing College, be more inclusive so that people who didn’t necessarily feel their transition was crossing genders in the binary understanding weren’t left out in harvard busines College, the cold. The problem with that was that it opened doors to accepting cross dressing cis people as trans, which is thinking problematic for reasons I’m sure I don’t even need to article writing (Navitas), type, as you did a fine job outlining some already. Thinking College? The understanding of the writing (Navitas) term transgender today, like in nursing critical thinking College, this article, is affirming to non binary identities without tacking anything onto the end of the word as some sort of “exception”, as it should be. I’m not quite sure where you got your info from that trans men were all for the asterisk, as most trans men I see (especially on tumblr) cling onto the binary concepts of gender with a death grip and expressed distaste for more than one or two non binary gender labels.

Maybe I’m just on a critique Ross the wrong side of the internet. Sorry for the long winded response, I just get worked up sometimes. Thanks for reading the article! To my knowledge the asterisk was added on nursing thinking Brighton by dfab trans people (sometimes called “transmasculine” people I guess,) not trans men. So sorry about that typo, I just fixed it. I already emailed you, but here are some points to consider (for anyone else who has the same question):

— From what I can tell this article ( does a pretty good job of outlining the thinking Istituto first reasons for the addition of the asterisk, though I don’t agree with all the conclusions the author draws. This tumblr post ( also brings up some good points. — I’m also sure there are some nonbinary people who feel the way you said (that they don’t feel their transition was crossing genders in the binary understanding,) but for College me the addition of the asterisk in assessing critical thinking School, that situation is critical Brighton College still problematic. Of Taunton? I’m dfab genderqueer/genderfluid, and critical Brighton, so I don’t have the experiences all trans people have and I can’t speak for everyone, but this is my take on a critique it from critical Brighton College a linguistics perspective. — Being trans isn’t going from one binary to the other. The definition of trans that I prefer to use (and have seen most other trans people use as well) is simply identifying as anything other than the gender you were assigned at birth.

THis post does a good job of outlining that– — Though it wasn’t always used in an inclusive way and I understand that, adding an asterisk to a word that in its original form is already inclusive… to me that does nothing? It doesn’t really actually further the inclusion of non-binary trans people. School? There is this idea that genderqueer people really aren’t trans enough, and to me adding at asterisk just really solidifies that. — It may have been in the beginning that the asterisk was meant to be inclusive. But I’ve seen it used to nursing critical, exclude trans women who don’t “pass” well enough, pre-op people/people who don’t ever want to get surgery, non-binary people, and people who are trans but don’t experience dysphoria. And to me that is really not a good thing. — In addition, a lot of people I’ve talked to are just told it’s inclusive and so they use it, rather than questioning why. I used to use it too, until it dawned on me that it was actually kind of offensive. I think if you really do critically think and still decide you like the trans* label for yourself, you should feel totally comfortable using it, but I don’t like it when it’s used as a generic term for article writing Deakin queer spaces, because to me (and a lot of other people I’ve talked to) it feels very exclusive and “well you can come here but you’re not really trans” ish. Like, in that case, why don’t we just have “trans” spaces and “*” spaces?

I hope that clears stuff up for some people who maybe have the same questions you do! Hi! This was very informative, thank you, but I was wondering about something. I’m bigender(male and female) but since I do identify with my birth gender(famle) along with male, am I still considered trans? Because you said only people who don’t identify with their birth gender are included. Seems like a couple people have this question, so I’ll send you both a reply (not sure if you guys will get an nursing Brighton alert if I don’t reply directly to harvard review, you) Tori — I’m trigender and nursing Brighton, genderfluid, so I totally get the confusion!

It was a wording issue, one that I’m fixing right now. Instead of saying that cis people are people who identify with their birth sex’s associated gender, I should’ve said that cis people are people who identify with *only* their birth sex’s associated gender. Multi-gender people who identify with their birth sex’s associated gender are trans of course, and a critique paper School, I’m sorry that my wording made it seem like they/we are left out! Big mistake, I’ll change that right now. Hello! I actually have the same question as Tori. Nursing Thinking College? Throughout the article nonbinaries are mentioned, but bigender isn’t.

Seeing as someone who is bigender can both identify with the gender they were assigned, and with a gender that they were not assigned with, that sort of is being cis and trans? Is there a term for that? Where do I belong? Seems like a couple people have this question, so I’ll send you both a reply (not sure if you guys will get an alert if I don’t reply directly to you) Leyda–if you read my above reply to Tori, I think I explained the issue (it was my fault! I worded the definition poorly, and critical podcast Marangoni, I will fix that as soon as I publish this reply). Critical Thinking? I don’t know how to answer your question about being cis and trans; I’m trigender and genderfluid and I’m still not sure what to call it on days when I ID as female. Write Hanze University? Am I cis on that particular day?

Who knows? Although I don’t know the nursing critical term for how to for an essay Hanze University of Applied Sciences it, I would say that we (multi-gender and/or genderfluid people) are 100% trans if we individually choose to identify that way. We might identify with our birth sex’s associated gender sometimes or even always, but the fact is that we identify as *more* genders than just that one, which is what makes us trans. Fixing the wording right now! Thanks a lot for your reply! I always felt a bit forgotten when people mentioned they supported “non-binaries and transgender people”, but it’s nice to think that I’m included as well. Also for future reference, people do get an alert if you reply to someone else as well #128521; Thanks to everyone who commented on critical thinking this post to call me out on semantics or to ask questions! I just want to say that I am always happy to discuss things and not only that, but I always appreciate knowing where I’ve made mistakes (even when they’re just simple wording ones) so that I can clean up my act and not do that in the future. I was just wondering if you had a source for this section:

“The addition of the asterisk was made by busines dfab trans people who felt like trans women were talking about their struggles too much and nursing, that there needed to be more room in the community for everyone else, which is an issue on it’s own.” When I searched I struggled to find one origin for the term trans* and I was wondering if the article writing Deakin (Navitas) above was more your lived experience than the actual, definite origin of the nursing College term? I got that impression from your comments that read: “It may have been in the beginning that the write paragraph for an Hanze asterisk was meant to nursing Brighton, be inclusive. But I’ve seen it used to exclude trans women who don’t “pass” well enough, pre-op people/people who don’t ever want to a critique paper School, get surgery, non-binary people, and people who are trans but don’t experience dysphoria.” Obviously your lived experience is still very valid, but it would be good practice to edit the article to reflect that, if that’s what it is. I did enjoy your article though and I do agree that the asterisk has some major issues associated with it. I also think you’ve done a great job editing your article and have been very eloquent about your views #128578; Hello there! Great question #128578; I do have sources, but I think my wording was incorrect. I don’t know (except by word-of-mouth, er, word-of-tumblr-text-post) that it was invented by nursing critical dfab trans people, but I know that the addition of the asterisk is made by dfab trans people in ways that are transmisogynistic.

Etymology of activist terms is sometimes hard to find, and upon how to a body paragraph Hanze University Sciences, searching I couldn’t find a definite history of the term, only histories of nursing critical College it’s problematic usage. I also know through personal experience (which I can link posts to thinking Marangoni London, you for as well if you’re interested, but I feel like it’s not directly related to your question) that there is critical Brighton a lot of transmisogyny in trans spaces exactly for that reason– that is, dfab trans people feeling like trans women take up too much space. There’s also a lot of erasure and invalidation of trans women’s identities tied into it’s usage. I’ve linked you to some posts above (here‘s another one), and will edit my wording in the article (and include sources!) as soon as I can. I’m really happy you liked the article #128578; And thank you for calling me out on this! I’m always trying to improve as a journalist and an activist, and improvement and podcast Istituto Marangoni, growth require dialogue and critical Brighton, learning experiences. Conversation about trans men outweighs conversation about trans women in trans spaces by anywhere from 30% to 2:1. Conversation about cis people in trans spaces outweighs conversation about trans women. And people have the gall to suggest that trans women’s issues “dominate” trans spaces?

Somebody needs their misogyny checked. I know, right? (PS– where did you get those statistics? If you have/know of the University source I’d love to take a look at it, it’d be great to cite in this article or in future conversations!) I do not agree with the idea that “trans” is the umbrella term for anyone who isn’t cis. If people aren’t down with the * that is one thing. But telling the rest of thinking Brighton College us that we are all defacto trans people just because we aren’t cis? That is really reductionist and not fair to anyone. Our identities are different. Our struggles are different. The correct umbrella term is completion “gender queer”. Trans people are of course free not to use this term if they don’t feel it identifies them.

But it is what is used for the rest of us. Unfortunately I’m going to have to disagree with you here. Critical? Transgender is an umbrella term. I did not tell anybody that they were “defacto” trans people, I said “Transgender means to identify as any gender other than–or in article writing University, addition to–the one you were assigned at birth (this includes identifying as multiple genders or no gender at all).” This is nursing thinking Brighton College true. You are welcome not to write paragraph for an University, use that label for nursing critical thinking College yourself if you don’t feel it fits you! But defining transgender as it is is not reductionist or unfair to anyone. “Transgender”, while often considered an umbrella term for persons whose gender expression and identity is non-normative, an umbrella, as such, under which genderqueer may belong, is review College a term that tends to nursing critical, be associated with the binary identities of male and assessing critical thinking, female, such as Female-to-Male (FTM, trans men) and Male-to Female (MTF, trans women), and with the process of critical Brighton College transition, physically or in presentation, along binary lines. Busines Wrekin? Identifying as transgender specifically may not express a genderqueer-associated or non-binary identity as clearly as the term “genderqueer” does. Non-binary refers to gender that is critical thinking College not binary (not man or woman) and has overlap with the term genderqueer, while they are not to be used interchangeably. While genderqueer can include those who are non-binary g(except for in the case of referring to London, expression / performance exclusively), not all non-binary identified people consider themselves genderqueer.

Genderqueer is a fine umbrella term for people who don’t feel that “transgender” is the label they want to use, or that it doesn’t fully describe how they feel. But saying that genderqueer is the “correct” umbrella term for critical Brighton those who are not cis, whereas transgender is strictly binary/post-op/etc., is of Taunton as reductionist and nursing, unfair as it would be if I were to say that all non-cis people automatically identify as trans. Oops– my source for this, in case anyone is wonder, is I believe that you are writing this in good faith, but I find it extremely off-putting and want to explain why. Later in article Deakin University, your essay you object to the trans asterisk because it needlessly invalidates trans identities, but the paragraph before that you do exactly that when you explain why crossdressers and drag performers are “not transgender,” that they are “cis people owning trans issues.” This certainly isn’t something originating with only thinking Brighton College you, and I keep hearing it more and assessing thinking Warminster School, more as time goes by, but I wish people would understand that for nursing critical Brighton College many years the idea of trans being an umbrella explicitly included crossdressers. Suddenly now it’s fashionable to go on critical thinking podcast London about how they aren’t trans, but that’s not true. If a crossdresser identifies with the trans community, there’s clearly something about them that is neither fully male nor fully female for nursing Brighton College them to feel it’s an of Taunton appropriate identity for nursing thinking Brighton them.

They’re not cis. It’s true that they experience different levels of oppression and harvard busines Wrekin, stigma than other trans people. The same can be said for literally any group of trans people… a trans man does not experience the same oppression as a trans woman, different non-binary gendered people have different experiences of oppression, and even within those categories the types of oppression we experience vary based on things like income, race, et. al. Transness is not defined by thinking Brighton how much oppression you experience, it’s defined by your identity. I think this might be a wording issue, and I’ll explain after my initial comment. You’re right: if a crossdresser identifies with the trans community, then there’s clearly something about them that is for an Hanze neither fully male nor fully female (or perhaps just something that isn’t in line with the gender they were designated at birth) for them to critical, feel it’s an appropriate identity for thinking School them. They’re not cis. My issue isn’t with crossdressers or drag performers identifying as transgender.

My issue is with crossdressers and thinking College, drag performers who identify as cisgender who claim that they experience discrimination for being trans, even when they explicitly identify as cis. Cis people cannot experience discrimination for being trans simply because they are cis, not trans, and review, can’t experience discrimination for something they are not. Of course trans crossdressers and drag performers experience the nursing critical thinking oppression and stigma of busines someone who is nursing critical thinking trans, because they are trans. But if they identify clearly as cis, it’s not right for them to claim that they experience oppression for being trans as a cis person. Review College? Could they have transmisogyny and nursing critical thinking Brighton College, transphobia directed their way based on misinformation? But that’s misdirected oppression of a group they don’t belong to, not they themselves being oppressed for being a member of that group. “My issue is with crossdressers and drag performers who identify as cisgender who claim that they experience discrimination for being trans…” This is something I have never witnessed firsthand or heard about busines review Wrekin, as a trend. I’m interested in nursing thinking, learning more – where is this happening? Unfortunately #128577; I think the best instance of it in pop culture is highlighted in this article from

[the following in tweet form from Rupaul]– Forget an outside threat, the “Gay Movement” will eat itself from the paragraph essay inside out #OrwellAnimalFarm. Orwell’s book “Animal Farm”: The pigs didn’t really want a revolution, they just wanted to critical Brighton College, BE ‘Farmer John’…It’s not the word itself, but the intention behind the word…I’ve been a “tranny” for 32 years. Academic Article Deakin University (Navitas)? The word “tranny” has never just meant transsexual. #TransvestiteHerstoryLesson. [then from the nursing critical thinking Brighton College article] RuPaul’s points are well-taken: The host of a uniquely inclusive reality show may well have insights that those seeking to how to write paragraph essay Hanze University Sciences, take offense are missing, and someone who’s been on the scene for nursing College many years may know a great deal about the history of how words were used. However, those possibilities don’t automatically mean that anyone who takes umbrage at RuPaul’s terminology — like the transgender former “Drag Race” contestant Carmen Carrera, who vocally criticized the critical thinking Warminster “She-Mail” language earlier this year — is attempting to critical thinking, become an Orwellian oppressor. That other people than RuPaul might be bringing their own experience to bear on critical thinking Marangoni London how they experience language seems as though it hasn’t occurred to critical thinking College, the reality-show host. There are a lot more examples of this occurring throughout pop culture, but I think this is one of the most famous/well-known. Thanks for your question, and critical thinking Istituto, I’m sorry I didn’t get back to critical College, you sooner! Hi there, I just have to Istituto London, respond to something you said above. “Cis people cannot experience discrimination for nursing critical thinking being trans simply because they are cis, not trans, and can’t experience discrimination for something they are not.” I really don’t think that is true.

Gay bashing is not only confined to gay people, but to anybody who a gay basher deems is writing Ross School gay, or gay ‘enough’. Nursing Thinking Brighton College? Cis people can experience transphobia when they crossdress or perform in article writing (Navitas), drag if they get discriminated against because they are cross dressing. Nursing Critical Thinking College? That is completion of Taunton transphobia and they experienced it, even if they identify as cis. In the end, it doesn’t matter whether the critical thinking Brighton person being gay bashed is gay, it matters whether the thinking Istituto London gay bashers think they are gay. It doesn’t matter if the person being trans(bashed?) is trans, it matters whether the person discriminating against them thinks they are.

I hope I have made my point clear #128578; I think my wording may have been a little unclear, my apologies! You are completely right. Critical Thinking? What I meant was not that cis people can’t be targeted by transphobia. I just mean that in the end, somebody bullying somebody else for being trans is an action based in transphobia, not cis-phobia or something like that. So while they can certainly be affected by it, cis people are not the ideological target of transphobia. In the of Taunton School end a transphobic person is prejudiced against trans people, though they may certainly target cis people by thinking Brighton mistake. I think this is giving way too much credit to bigotry, which is not that discerning. When in the history of ever was a cis crossdresser thinking, while being brutalized, “This is academic writing transphobia directed my way based on misinformation; I’m not being oppressed for being a *member* of that group.” I cannot even articulate the thinking Brighton College degree of frustration I feel about harvard busines review, this. Who benefits from nursing thinking College this demarcation?

Haven’t we in the non-cis community already taken the class that it’s no fun to be excluded? Like, every day? The only thing I want to say to anyone who is marginalized in any way is, “Thank you for coming. I’m glad you could be here.” My reason for critical thinking Istituto Marangoni using the asterisk has been to share a sense that there are many kinds of non-cis identities (the misunderstood inclusion variety you mention), but also to make sure that I’m distinguishing between my privilege as a genderqueer person often identified by others as cis because of my presentation and nursing Brighton College, the oppressions experienced by other people who are transgender and whose presentation is writing a critique paper Ross School often a site and source of violence, hate, bias, and discrimination. I have been given to understand in many trainings around LGBTQIA issues that Trans* includes me–I have never heard that the “umbrella inclusive term” is nursing critical thinking Brighton genderqueer until your post. So I’m just not sure here. Critical London? I want to be accurate to my experience without co-opting the nursing identity terms of people whose row is much harder to hoe than mine. Trans does include you, if you identify as such! Genderqueer can be an umbrella term in the sense that people can identify as genderqueer and also identify as trans, agender, non-binary, etc.

I wouldn’t say, however, that the trans asterisk denotes the privilege of “cis-passing” genderqueer people. Instead I would say that it is harmful in the sense that it invalidates the harvard review Wrekin identities of genderqueer, non-binary, (etc.) transgender people as being “not really trans” just because they aren’t binary. Nursing College? I would also bear in mind that even though you are cis-passing, many non-binary and/or genderqueer people are not. Critical Thinking Podcast Marangoni London? And so the trans asterisk does more to invalidate the identities of non-binary people who very often may experience the same kind of oppression for being trans as a binary trans person than it does to denote privilege of a specific set of genderqueer individuals. Does that make sense?

Yes–thanks! I suppose I was taught to see transgender and nursing critical thinking College, Trans* as both being positive and affirming, one of a narrower category and the other of a broader category–one that included me, which I was happy about. Academic? But I see how your concern is that the critical thinking College broader category might serve to Ross, make it seem like one must be binary to be “really trans”, when what I was taught was the opposite (I felt welcomed, not alienated, by inclusion in the broader category, and it gave me the nursing critical thinking opportunity to academic Deakin University, try to critical Brighton, avoid co-opting the narrower one). Thank you for write essay Hanze University writing this post – I’ve learned a lot from reading it and all the comments. I’m a journalist who has been struggling over whether to critical College, use “trans*” or “trans” when writing articles, and someone on busines College reddit linked me here after I made a query about nursing critical Brighton, it in /r/transeducate. I will say that researching into writing paper School the asterisk’s usage in nursing critical thinking Brighton College, the first place taught me a lot; like Meklorka above, I used to believe that “genderqueer” was the all-inclusive term, and Wrekin College, that “trans” and “transgender” only referred to those who were transitioning between binary genders. Reading about the asterisk (and the word “transgender” more generally) was what made me realise that “trans” referred to nursing critical thinking Brighton, a whole world of genders beyond that.

But even after I determined that I should be inclusive and use the a critique School asterisk, I always felt uncomfortable doing so, like I was doing it for show. I think part of the reason I’m uneasy about the * is because its connotations of being used as a “search wildcard” are very specific to the computer age and nursing Brighton College, those who are digitally literate, and writing a critique School, that in itself seems exclusionary. I love terms that have evolved on the internet and nursing critical thinking, creep their way into everyday conversation, but only when they refer to things that are digital and online. And speaking of conversation, how are you supposed to express “trans*” when speaking to someone? Do you have to vocalise it somehow or you’re not being inclusive? What about the word “transgender”, is that accepted as an completion School umbrella term or not? No-one ever puts an nursing asterisk next to that, but why not, if it’s so important? These are all reasons why I couldn’t fully reconcile myself to using the writing a critique paper * even though it seemed like such a good idea in theory. Nursing Thinking Brighton? But like I said, I did learn from it, and I’m learning even more now. I had always thought that the asterisk was a ‘wildcard’ symbol, like in programming.

In that usage, ‘trans*’ would mean ‘transgender, transsexual, transman, transwoman, etc.’ Back when there was still a lot of write a body Hanze of Applied Sciences discussion around ‘transgender’ vs. Critical Thinking Brighton? ‘transsexual,’ using ‘trans*’ was both more convenient and more inclusive. Assessing Warminster? That’s why I started using it. I stopped for a similar reason: most people I talk to Brighton College, started to know what I was talking about if I just said “trans,” so I dropped the asterisk out of laziness. The comments discussing “genderqueer” as the inclusive term are confusing, to me. People I know who identify as genderqueer have been very clear that they use the word to mean a variety of School things unique to Brighton, themselves, but they almost always seem to include “having a nonbinary, fluid, changeable, or uncertain gender; or questioning the whole concept of ‘gender.'” I had thought that people such as myself, whose gender can be described and recognized by the binary system in a fairly accurate way, were NOT genderqueer. I think there are varying perceptions of who the writing a critique paper Ross School word genderqueer includes. However, the definition I found on Brighton’s FAQ page says that. “Genderqueer is a term used to writing Ross School, describe those whose gender is non-normative (‘queer’) or who ‘queer’ gender through presentation or other means (queer in the latter case is being used as a verb).” They also later say that. “Identifying as transgender specifically may not express a non-binary identity as clearly as the term “genderqueer” does, which may be seen as its own ‘umbrella’ category differentiated from, and overlapping with, transgender.” In this particular instance I think what they mean by “‘umbrella’ category” is not that it encompasses all trans people, but that it is an critical thinking College umbrella term that can be used by a critique paper School many different sorts of College non-binary people (who may or may not also identify as or fit the “definition of” transgender).

Another term that has to paragraph Hanze of Applied, be eliminatede for many transgender persons is the term “pre-op.” Since I don’t plan to nursing Brighton College, have surgery, I am a “non-op” transgender woman, and I’m not “pre-op” because there is no “op” pending, so there can be no “pre-” anything. Writing Ross School? The term “pre-op” is a grossly inaccurate description of those like me who have no plans for thinking College surgery. Critical Podcast Istituto London? “Pre-op” is another constricting term placed upon nursing critical Brighton College, transgender persons. For An Essay Hanze Of Applied Sciences? It presumes all transgender persons will have an operation, no doubt yet another attempt to critical Brighton College, put rules on who is writing Ross School really transgender and critical thinking College, who is not. I’ve yet to see a real cry from others like me who are mislabeled this way, as though an “op” is the only way to be “trans enough,” as though you’re less when you’re a “pre-” but you meet society’s sexist expectations of your genitalia when you’re a “post-.” I suggest the terms “pre-op” and “post-op” and “non-op” be used. Alouette, Thank you for academic University (Navitas) informing me! I’ve never heard the term “non-op” before, but now that you explain it I definitely like that better than “pre-op.” I will change the language in nursing critical thinking College, the article later today. First time read of Pulp Zine, I’m trans (not sure what, rather just say trans-eccentric or just plain ‘tranny’) and whilst I enjoyed reading the article, I have a few grievances towards it – or rather, towards the Trans/* community as a whole. So, prepare to be bored by paper my long-winded thoughts! The Trans/* community, like many other communities, can be scarily noninclusive.

There’s no point in pretending there’s no a Trans hierarchy, because there is. There’s no point in pretending there aren’t certain Trans people who think they deserve more authority in their opinion because of either the nursing critical thinking Brighton College lengths of surgery or suffering they’ve been through on of Taunton their journey. Nursing Thinking Brighton? And it’s understandable: it’s a viciously rough and completion of Taunton, confusing journey, and given the amounts of discrimination and harassment, it’s understandable why the College Trans community has grievances towards their ‘cisgender’ counterparts, but when we talk about the School oppression of Trans people, maybe we could also open up the discussion of Trans-on-Trans discrimination and invalidation? I – and many Transgender people I know – have been made to feel as if we’re ‘just not Trans enough’ by nursing critical Brighton members of the Trans community themselves. I was born with a penis, and assigned male at of Taunton School birth. But I’ve never been a male. I’ve never felt like a male. I think I probably should’ve been born a female. Suits feel far more like drag attire than dresses do.

But given all that, I’m now some gender-eccentric being who is neither Arthur nor Martha, or, at times more Martha than Arthur, and vice versa. Nursing Critical Thinking Brighton? Now, as far as I can see, that makes me Trans. “across, through, over, beyond, to or on the other side of, outside of” I’ve recently graduated as an English teacher, so I tend to completion of Taunton School, get excited over certain words. And Trans is definitely one. Why? Because, by nursing critical it’s very description, it’s all inclusive.

It takes in thinking Istituto London, a range of ideas, it’s ‘off the spectrum’. I think each word of the definition describes my gender perfectly, so as far as I’m concerned, I’m Trans, and entitled to be part of the debate – whether or not I want to, or feel the need to, permanently assign one gender to myself or not. And yet, there are plenty of nursing College people who have duly ignored, or dismissed, my contributions to the discussion, because they are the opinions of how to write a body paragraph for an University Sciences someone who won’t have surgery, take hormones, or legally change their gender. And that’s why I just can’t bring myself to agreeing that Crossdressers and Drag Artists shouldn’t be a part of the nursing critical College conversation, or be welcomed into the Trans community, if so they wish. I understand there are issues between these two identities and the Trans community, but surely, that’s all the harvard busines Wrekin College more reason why Crossdressers and nursing critical, Drag Artists need to be included in the community conversation? Given the description of the Trans prefix above, I think surely it’d be fair to say – at least a little – that Crossdressers and Drag Artists fit into that description? Even if someone’s ‘cisgender’ 99% of the time, surely that 1% where they are not qualifies them to an opinion and academic article writing Deakin, a voice in the Trans conversation?

I have witnessed, both online and in thinking Brighton, the real world, situations where well-meaning cisgender individuals have ‘got it a little wrong’, and have been ruthlessly ripped apart by the Trans community (similarly, Queer allies by the Queer community). It’s sickening. Critical Warminster School? How on Earth we can warrant the respect of the non Trans world when we can be so vicious towards our well-meaning (but sometimes not terribly well-articulated or well-versed) counterparts? I’ve been rancorously reprimanded by nursing thinking College self-appointed Trans spokespeople and activists for having a difference of opinion to them on Trans issues – one such example was being told by a Trans woman that “any self-respecting Trans Ally needed to boot me out of their space with a large wooden pole” because I said that the completion of Taunton Queer and Trans community was sometimes guilty of self-victimisation (and I’m sorry guys, but it’s an inconvenient, yet understandable truth). The most worrying thing? This lady was a leader in the University’s Education Network. Thinking? A very scary thought, considering Education should be all about the exploration and assessing critical thinking, discussion of nursing critical Brighton ideas and knowledge. I believe that if society has a whole had a debate over what exactly ‘gender’ is (and what it’s not – such as misogynistic, societal expectations) – and harvard busines, what ‘Trans’ means – there’d be a LOT more people who’d probably subscribe, and embrace, a ‘non-cisgender’ identity.

Articles on whether an asterix is appropriate or not are well-intentioned, but guided towards a part of society that is already ‘on board’ with the nursing Brighton College Trans community’s fight for how to write a body for an essay University Sciences acceptance and respect. Critical Brighton? We need to Istituto Marangoni, go back to the grass roots of the cause. Nursing Critical College? When you read comments describing individuals such as Caitlyn Jenner as ‘Science Projects’, when Transgendered youths are made homeless by a critique paper Ross School their families, and when violence and harassment of Transgendered individuals still continues, whether or not an asterix is College needed when using the word Trans is surely not a high-priority discussion? My parents know very little about Trans issues, but have always been supportive of myself and my identity – as they’ve said, ‘we don’t care, as long as you’re happy’, and harvard busines review Wrekin College, similarly with a lot of my friends (something I’m incredibly fortunate for, and something I hope will be commonplace in the future). That’s what I think we need to Brighton, work towards in writing (Navitas), society in regards to Trans and Queer issues. We shouldn’t have an College expectation of non-Trans people getting it right all the time, nor an article writing Deakin University expectation that every member of society should understand the critical thinking deep and complex issues revolving around Gender Identity. We need to a critique paper, discuss these things, educate through discussion, and not enter society with a list of demands that even the Trans community can’t agree on. We shouldn’t be requiring our Allies to have the same amount of gender/sexual identity exploration and knowledge as us, but rather, looking towards Allies as being the people who are respectful and supportive of our individual identities as people. I can forgive a few slip-ups and clusters of ignorance for unwavering support of myself and my individual identity.

In regards to other comments, I do believe that some cisgender people face Trans prejudice, and critical College, therefore have valuable input into completion School the discussion. The reason why misogyny is so rampant is because we categorise and box people, and we place ‘expectations of College standards’ upon paragraph Hanze University of Applied Sciences, them as a result. Misogyny is the cause of so many prejudices towards Queer Trans people. Straight people often find themselves the Brighton victims of homophobic harassment, and writing a critique School, if the goal is the elimination of critical thinking College homophobia, then these people need to assessing thinking School, be included on the conversation, and encouraged to join the nursing thinking fight – rather than the disassociate themselves with the movement because of their identity doesn’t ‘fit’. Their experience of homophobic or transphobic prejudice is JUST as valid (and damaging) as anyone else’s – imagine how horrible it is article Deakin University facing discrimination for something you’re not?!

We’ve GOT to be inclusive, or else we’re guilty of placing the nursing thinking College same expectations and College, standards on people and their identity that we’ve faced too; and we’ve got to deplore any act by members of the Trans community that show the same sickening discrimination and isolation Trans people face themselves. In ANY cultural community, there are those by which are members by identity or birthright, and those of which who have been welcomed in critical thinking, through support or Allyship. As far as I’m concerned, anyone who supports my gender or sexual identity is an Ally, and therefore a part of the community. And if they want to identify as a Trans-ally, then they’re under the Trans umbrella too. Article Writing Deakin (Navitas)? We could all learn a lot from listening to our Allies – not least, on ways in which we can get more Allies on side (pssst, I think Education through sensible, open-discussion is nursing critical thinking a great place to start!). Anyway – just my two cents! Sorry for the long post. No need to apologize!

I’m so glad this article made you think so much. I understand what you mean by this not being a high-priority issue. Critical Thinking School? Certainly, an article about social justice semantics is not directly saving the thinking Brighton lives of trans kids in abusive situations or anything like that! At the same time, I think discussion of Wrekin College all sorts is thinking needed, not just basic lets-educate-the-public talk. My hope is that through discussions that revolve around topics like semantics (which are arguably not immediately relevant) activists who are working to further acceptance for and within the trans community can evaluate our stances and the impact of our actions, and thus be better educators and more conscientious in our daily lives about who our actions affect (especially as activists, who are raising our voices above the clamor in the name of rights for Ross trans and gender non-conforming people). I also would say that while there are cis people and critical Brighton College, straight people who have been targeted by transphobia and homophobia, it does not in my mind mean they have experienced what it is like to be trans or not straight in society. Even if they are offended and completion of Taunton, hurt by the prejudice they face, at the end of the day it is misdirected. They can still go home and nursing thinking, know that they are cisgender and heterosexual, and that those insults were not meant to hurt them. It’s very different to be upset (as a reasonable cis, straight person would be!) by transphobia and homophobia when it doesn’t target you than to know that the how to write essay Hanze University of Applied words people are spitting in your direction are condemning an identity that you hold close enough to your being to claim it as your own.

I’m not saying that misdirected hatred is easy for the person it’s been shoved at nursing critical thinking Brighton College (no matter how much it applies or doesn’t apply). But it is easier than knowing that the hatred you are experiencing is truly meant for you. I am also a strong believer in educating rather than condemning people who may have never been introduced to concepts such as being transgender. I also see what you mean by critical London allies being valuable, and I think that is true! But I think there is nursing thinking Brighton College room within activist spaces to work on educating and a body paragraph essay Hanze University of Applied, gaining acceptance from the general public and to deconstruct our own ideas and think about nursing critical thinking, our activism and views on subjects (like how we classify gender) in new and different ways. Trans* has been used by international TRANS activists groups to be more expansive Global Action for Trans* Equality. “GATE uses the term trans* to describe those people who transgress (binary) (western) gender norms, many of whom face human rights issues as a result.

Trans* people includes those people who have a gender identity which is different to critical thinking podcast Marangoni, the gender assigned at nursing thinking College birth and/or those people who feel they have to, prefer to or choose to – whether by clothing, accessories, cosmetics or body modification – present themselves differently to the expectations of the gender role assigned to them at critical thinking Warminster School birth. This includes, among many others, transsexual and transgender people, transvestites, travesti, cross dressers, no gender and nursing critical thinking Brighton, genderqueer people. The term trans* should be seen as a placeholder for many identities, most of write a body for an Sciences which are specific to nursing critical thinking College, local cultures and times in a critique paper, history, describing people who broaden and expand a binary understanding of gender.” Hm. I understand where you’re coming from, especially with the thinking College “specific to local cultures and times in history” bit. A Critique Paper Ross? However, I think still think that when people use the term trans*, and are not intending to describe people who are members of nursing thinking any and all groups you listed above, it is the busines review wrong term to use. Thinking College? I do think we need a way to talk about writing a critique paper School, all people who present and/or identify differently than their expectations assigned at birth, but I think there could be a word to nursing Brighton College, describe that that does not use transgender identity as a vehicle (especially when many members of that group may strongly identify as cisgender, even if they wear clothing that isn’t a norm for their gender assigned at birth). As a trans woman and activist, I love the writing a critique paper Ross School use of trans, trans* and transgender as umbrella terms.

In my experience, the problem we have is one of semantics, rooted in whether transgender means: (a) people who break the rules of gender other than in who they sleep with (i.e. people whose identities *and/or expressions* differ from that assigned to them at or shortly after birth ) (b) people who cis society perceives “cross over” from nursing critical Brighton one binary gender to another, even though many actually identified that way their entire lives. When I was introduced to the term “transgender,” it clearly meant (a). Writing Deakin? It was an umbrella used for critical thinking Brighton College organizing, and it was useful in getting all the gender outlaws under one banner. Writing Ross? But when the media started reporting specifically on nursing critical College transsexuals in the late 00’s, it assumed “transgender” was a polite substitution for podcast Marangoni London “transsexual” because… uh… I guess they thought it’s better to not say “sex” or something. (Tangent: At times, “transgender” it was used to refer specifically to no-ho/non-op people who have a binary gender identity that conflicts with their assignment at birth, thus shedding the medical diagnostic ties of “transsexual.” This should be no surprise, as the term “transgender” was reappropriated from the word “transgenderist” as was popularized by Virginia Prince in critical College, the 1970s who organized around this very identity, and who was instrumental in paper Ross School, the part-time MTF-spectrum umbrella that included both trans women and AFAB crossdressers.)

As a consequence of this binary-focused mainstream media coverage, many non-binary people and cissexed gender non-conforming people felt it does not include them, so they stopped identifying with it. If however, we use Transgender as an umbrella term, many gender-variant people who identify with the gender they were assigned at birth might want to use the term “cis*sexed* and transgender” while non binary people can use “non binary transgender” Failing that, to my knowledge, we lack any short umbrella term that has ever satisfied a large number of people. And that causes a problem whenever someone is nursing thinking trying to concisely convey the spectrum of academic (Navitas) people who might have a stake or at least a deep-seated personal interest in combatting transphobia, binary sexism, imperialist gender systems, transmisogyny, body-freedom and so on. Hi, so, first and critical, foremost, this article is Wrekin a wonderful critique of the trans-asterisk, and I have always wondered what the point of nursing College it was, considering that most people consider “trans” an School umbrella term. However, I do disagree with that term being used to encompass any and all gender that is not cis. Because single-gender, binary trans people receive a much different experience from the Western culture than do nonbinary, agender, and multigender folks, I personally feel that to use the word “trans” to include everyone who isn’t cisgender is marginalizing at best. For example, single-gender, binary trans people are much more likely to nursing thinking Brighton, have their pronouns validated because very many (if not most) of them use the pronouns that are largely accepted as “correct” by standard English (ie she, hers, he, his etc). Harvard? However, people who identify with neutral and critical thinking College, other uncommon pronouns (they, ze, xe, zey), from my experience, get a lot more crap from ignorant cisgender folks. And the people that use those pronouns, or no pronouns at all, are usually agender, nonbinary, or multigender. Furthermore, we are increasingly becoming aware of critical transgender people in the media, and they are always single-gender, binary, “passing”, and nursing critical Brighton, overall gender-conforming, so the general public associates the write a body paragraph essay Sciences word “transgender” with people who are, again, binary and single-gender (Caitlyn Jenner, Laverne Cox, Jenna Talackova, Chaz Bono, et cetera).

To include words meant specifically for people who do not identify as one, binary trans gender is to say, “We hear you, we acknowledge your experiences, and nursing Brighton College, yes, we give a damn.” Hey there Alchemy. I don’t think anyone’s disagreeing with you here! I believe I may have cleared this up earlier, but there are a lot of comments so I understand if you didn’t have a chance to read through them all. I defined transgender as “to identify as any gender other than–or in addition to–the one you were assigned at birth (this includes identifying as multiple genders or no gender at harvard Wrekin all).” That said, I agree with you that not everybody who identifies as a gender other than their gender assigned at birth identifies as transgender. I was not trying to nursing College, say that all people who do not identify as the gender they were assigned are automatically trans, and I’m sorry it came across that way. However, I would say that the label transgender can be accurately claimed by anybody who identifies as any gender other than the one they were assigned at birth. Of Taunton? It is important to distinguish between binary trans people, non-binary trans people, and nursing College, people who don’t identify with their assigned gender but also don’t identify as trans. The experiences of these people are very different, and academic University (Navitas), that is valid and needs to be brought up. But when talking about nursing Brighton College, everyone who identifies as transgender, adding an asterisk on writing University to the end of the nursing word “trans” doesn’t do this.

Instead it serves to critical podcast, invalidate some trans identities as being “less trans” than others, among other things (you’ve read the article already, and I feel like I outlined it pretty thoroughly there). I’m not arguing that we should get rid of words that distinguish between different trans identities or eschew other concepts of non-conforming gender for the single label of “trans”! I just think we need to change the way we address everyone who identifies as trans (and thus falls underneath the umbrella term “transgender” by thinking their own free will and identity). Does that make sense? I hope this wasn’t too rambly/unclear! […] I was hurting so much the first time I heard it that I actually blogged about it (this was, pretty ironically, before I understood the asterisk is problematic). Critical Thinking? […] I just read this post because you linked to it in your everyday feminism post about nursing critical Brighton, dysphoria.

It really disappoints me that at a post about a body paragraph for an essay University of Applied Sciences, inclusion, a post noting how it’s wrong to tell someone they aren’t “trans enough” continues to exclude. Crossdressing and drag is often the first way a trans person investigates gender because there is *some* social exceptability in performing a different gender. Critical College? For other’s crossdressinf and drag is not a gateway to trans but the assessing thinking needed gender expression itself. Gender is Brighton College complicated. I’m non-binary but present much closer to paper Ross, the gender associated with my sex, leaving me being read as cis gendered by…everyone. Maybe stop putting up fences for nursing critical thinking Brighton those imagined evil cis people who try to podcast Marangoni London, infiltrate your space and just be a decent human to other people.

I actually didn’t write that everyday feminism article, believe it or not. It’s a very cool article though, and I’m happy the author linked his to mine! #128578; In any case, as far as your comment goes. Critical Thinking Brighton College? There are lots of critical podcast forms of gender expression and nursing thinking, presentation, and of course crossdressing and drag are two of harvard review them. Critical Brighton? I’m not trying to say that those aren’t valid forms of expression, or that people who present outside of the norm for their gender aren’t marginalized, or that drag performers don’t face stigma. I’m also not trying to a critique paper Ross School, assert that crossdressers or drag performers are not trans, since many are. What I’m saying is just that if someone explicitly identifies as cis, then they are cis, regardless of what they are wearing or performing in. And since they are cis, people should not refer to critical thinking Brighton, them as trans when they are not. (Also I’m sorry you’ve experienced misgendering, that’s never fun.) See, you speak lots of nice words, but they really seem to disagree with my lived experience.

The fact is, that for many binary transfolk (#notallbinarytrans) genderqueer and how to paragraph for an essay of Applied, other non-binary folk AREN’T considered trans. That’s just a fact. It’s awful, it’s cruel, and it’s wrong – but it’s there. I was DMAB, and have identified off the critical thinking Brighton binary for much of the past two decades. Let me tell you, it hasn’t been great, trying to completion School, fight to be included in the “trans umbrella”. I’ve been asked to leave stores during their Women-and-Trans hours, I’ve been excluded from trans safe spaces (but never from nursing critical thinking trans* safe spaces) and I’ve had to fight to be allowed to harvard review Wrekin College, do things like derby, even when leagues have trans policies. There’s a reason a lot of social spaces specify ‘Trans and nursing, non-binary’. It’s because, to a large amount of academic article Deakin University (Navitas) binary trans folk (#notallbinarytrans), WE’RE NOT “REALLY” TRANS. You can argue that we should be considered trans, and nursing thinking Brighton, you can argue that trans should include us under the ‘umbrella’. But sadly, we often aren’t, and thus is a body for an essay Hanze Sciences doesn’t. Nursing Thinking Brighton? At this point in history, the of Taunton term ‘trans’ has too much hurtful baggage – it’s a term that has been used to exclude us for decades; it is not a term of safety to non-binary folk.

That’s why I’ll continue to use trans*, and continue to nursing critical College, encourage people who care about non-binary folk to use it as well. Hmmm… This is a point that I’ve seen brought up by a number of other commenters (whose comments I’ll be posting shortly) as well, and write a body paragraph for an University of Applied Sciences, I think you’re all very correct. Brighton College? Though trans should be an writing a critique School umbrella term, it isn’t used as one by many binary trans folk as well as binary cis people. I can understand why one would find the trans * helpful. However, I still find it off-putting because I feel it continues to nursing, reinforce the Warminster idea that non-binary or genderqueer people aren’t trans (as long as they identify as trans). In my mind the ideal situation would be for nursing Brighton people and organizations to use the a critique paper Ross term trans, while making it clear through their actions and words that they include non-binary trans people under the transgender umbrella. Nursing Critical College? That will be one of the only ways the word trans will start to include non-binary people more regularly, and the only way for non-binary people to take back the word “trans” as a term of busines review College safety. That said, I don’t disagree with you. I guess I am not quite sure what a good alternative is, since I know many people who’ve had similar experiences to thinking Brighton College, yours, and many people who’ve had similar experiences to mine. Saying “non-cis” instead of trans might be one way to make it explicit that you are referring to, well, non-cis people, not just binary trans folks. Academic University? I tend not to like terms that start with a negative, but I currently can’t come up with a better way to nursing critical thinking College, put it.

[…] actually identify as trans. How To Write Of Applied? This history behind that tiny asterisk will take too long to critical thinking Brighton College, explain here, but to summarize briefly: cisgender people bestowed the asterisk upon trans communities, and that […] I am convinced that the majority of of Taunton crossdressers are trans but due to socio-economic or personal reasons limit their trans experience to simply dressing up.. Nursing Thinking? I went 45 years convinced that I was just a crossdresser. I knew I was not anything else.

I have personally known two gender fluid teens who have since come out thinking podcast Istituto, as trans. My umbrella is large and Brighton College, there is enough room for many. Gender Queer, Gender Fluid, crossdressers, drag. To exclude them from the trans umbrella is to turn our back on our brothers and sisters. Completion Of Taunton? All are welcome. Thats just as pathetic as using the word “cis”. This is partly the critical thinking reason people see us as a joke or dont take us seriously… I’m not whining. Don’t read a semantics article if you don’t want to hear about semantics. I wondered if you’d consider sharing your voice on our site?

If you’d like to become a contributor, there’s a link at the bottom of each page! I want to Wrekin, understand this but am having a difficult time. There are a few points that don’t make sense to me: 1. Cis cross dressers don’t deal with what (your definition of nursing critical College trans) people deal with on a daily basis. Isn’t this completely contrary to your main point that all trans people are not the same and don’t struggle the same? The word trans has become so widely used that we now have “nonbinary dfab femme presenting with no dysphoria who only dates cis men” under the queer and trans umbrella. And I would definitely argue that out crossdressers and queens definitely face more transmisogyny, transphobia, and homophobia than a “nonbinary dfab femme presenting with no dysphoria who only dates cis men” who considers themself trans. 2. The asterix was created by dfab people to silence trans women.

I have heard this point before but still don’t see an actual explanation of how this silences anyone. Of Taunton School? I read your piece again looking for thinking College it and assessing Warminster School, could not find it. Nursing Critical Brighton? Even if it was created by dfab people, dfab trans people are allowed to assessing thinking Warminster School, have trans things and it’s oppression olympics to suggest that everything dfab people create is wrong because privilege- especially because so many dfab people still move throughout the world being read as nonnormative women- even if they don’t experience trans misogyny, it’s not a cake walk. 3. The asterix is used to say some people aren’t trans enough… including trans women. From everything you have said, this also seems contrary to the term used to be more inclusive. I have also NEVER heard anyone ever say trans women were not trans enough. They are considered the most trans and are the most visible example of trans gender people (and that visibility comes at a huge cost, don’t get me wrong.) Anytime I talk to a nonradical queer about trans issues they only know about trans women. Nursing Critical? So this makes no sense to me. 4. Writing Ross? You’re either trans or you’re not. I have met many many people who identify as “sort of” trans or “in between” trans and cis. And they are allowed to identify that way.

So while you are making the point that trans means so many things and we should not narrow it down to being one way, you then reinforce that very idea. Hey! Just real fast though–I’m a person who uses the thinking College ‘*’ at how to write paragraph University of Applied Sciences the end of the LGBTQIA acronym to cover all the extra identities that exist beyond even the critical Brighton College longest acronym. Does that create a problem because of the writing a critique history of the ‘*’ being used to nursing critical Brighton, exclude trans identities? I also want to School, clear up the whole drag/crossdressing issue on another front. I’m sorry if my language has seemed demonizing towards drag performers or crossdressing individuals, because that was not my intent. I recognize that cis drag performers and cis crossdressers are marginalized for thinking Brighton College not conforming to gender norms, and I also recognize that there are many drag performers and crossdressers who are trans! They are not mutually exclusive identities #128578; I would also like to clarify that a lot of the associations made between transness and crossdressing/drag comes from cis people who are not crossdressers or drag performers, not crossdressers #038; drag performers themselves. When some cis people see someone crossdressing they automatically associate that person as trans, and harvard review, when they see someone who is thinking Brighton trans they may automatically label them a drag performer/crossdresser. The reason this is harmful is critical thinking podcast Marangoni both because it associates presentation with gender (i.e. that person is wearing a dress so they must be a girl) and because it enforces the idea that a trans person is really just “a man in a dress” or “a tomboy” or someone “playing dress-up” when this is not the case.

But again, these assumptions are not coming from nursing thinking Brighton College people involved in drag or crossdressing. My original intent in completion of Taunton, bringing that up in the article was not to nursing critical Brighton College, call out assessing thinking, all crossdressers or drag performers as cis, or to exclude them if they are trans, or to say that they are not marginalized. My point was to bring up the fact that it’s an nursing Brighton issue when anyone (though this often comes from cis non drag performers) says “oh, even if he identifies as cis he’s trans because he wears a skirt” or “oh, she’s really just a man in a dress,” which is what happens when one tries to label specifically cis-identifying drag performers and crossdressing individuals as transgender just because they present differently. Gabriel, I re-read your post several times, but if I missed something, please forgive me. I did not see you address those of completion us who identify as transSEXUAL (not transgender). The fact that in this piece you argue so strongly against a trans-umbrella, then go onto say that “trans” only includes transGENDER identified folks is precisely the reason I use “trans*”. As a transsexual person who is not transgender, it is simply exclusionary to say that “trans” wouldn’t apply because I am not the thinking Brighton right “type” of trans to use it. Can you address? Thanks. It is important to acknowledge ALL gender non-conforming people as trans, not just the writing a critique paper ones this author personally feels are trans enough.

This author’s view that they get to say who is trans and who is not is the nursing Brighton College prime example of why the asterisk is still in use. I was reading your post and I have a couple questions – and harvard, I apologize if you answered this already, I didn’t see it covered in the comments above but may have missed it. And sorry if it is long winded! You stated that “We need to do away with the asterisk, whose creation was a backlash against trans women, and whose existence tells so many people that they aren’t “trans enough.” ” – do you have more details to nursing critical Brighton, back up the story of “trans*” being created to backlash against how to paragraph essay University of Applied Sciences, trans women? I read it in nursing thinking Brighton College, blogs…and now in your post…stated as a fact but I can’t see to dig up any info that isn’t just anecdotal or by word of harvard busines College mouth. Not to say it isn’t right…but I would love to know a source for this info.

I also bring this up because the history of the nursing College transgender community can get lost in review Wrekin, translation from generation to critical, generation, so I feel like a lot of podcast Istituto Marangoni historical context gets forgotten. For example, I have read that the term “t*” was very prevalent for many decades and even predates “transgender” as an “umbrella” term for the community we now call “transgender”. “t*” was created to nursing College, make what was the then “transsexual” community more inclusive. Then transgender became the umbrella term and the community then split and critical thinking Istituto London, had very heated debates about whether folks should use transsexual or transgender. Not unlike what we are seeing today with the term “trans*”. Is, perhaps, “trans*” really a more modern incantation of “t*”?

If so, do you or anyone else know a more detailed version of the creation of the term “t*”? Also, while looking up the nursing critical thinking College history of “trans*” and the argument why we shouldn’t use it, I stumbled on this interesting and arguably convincing summary on completion of Taunton School the issue. What I really took away from the analysis, besides in debunking who and nursing critical thinking Brighton, who didn’t create the term “trans*”, was something I have seen a lot of in the arguments for doing away with the term: “While it’s white queer and trans FAAB people who started the asterisk, it’s also white queer and trans FAAB people who are at paragraph essay Hanze of Applied Sciences the front lines of nursing thinking Brighton critiquing the use of the asterisk, including the use among trans people of color, trans women, and nonbinary people who use it to describe themselves. The call-out culture prevalent online is something that does solidly contribute to the oppression of completion of Taunton some of the most marginalized members of nursing critical Brighton our community by privileging access to Deakin, the most up-to-date theoretical work around what it means to be trans over critical Brighton, actual trans experiences.”

Thanks for review Wrekin College talking about and engaging in an important and interesting topic! Look forward to your thoughts. When I first saw trans* written somewhere I assumed it meant trans as in Brighton College, transgender and/or transsexual, not as a “trans umbrella”. Trans* was created to harvard busines College, fuse together genderqueer movements and transgender movements and to absorb non binary into transgender and out of the queer movement, so it could be LGBT and not LGBTQ. There was a danger the T and Q would come up with different opinions on gender, as Q originated from social gender originally. A while back people used to identify as trans women and also genderqueer and the genderqueer was meant to nursing, be about rejecting the roles. A lot of the politics of the Q are from butler.

I can tell you that as a gender role non conforming cis person i dont want including under the trans umbrella and since the assessing School * i find i am. I disagree with the argument that we should stop using the *asterisk. After having attended the Asterisk Trans* Conference 2014, it seems clear that a trans* community has been built around the inclusivity of the nursing critical Brighton College term! The culmination of all these lived experiences in Southern California is evidence to the fact that the term is gaining steam. Also, leading activist Bamby Salcedo writes “a person of trans* experience”.

This was written quickly! Honestly I hate the us of the term “trans” altogether b/c it is academic article writing University (Navitas) turning what was a general prefix, basically meaning “across or beyond”, into a very specific term about gender distinctions. There are a lot of words that start with “trans”, like “transportation”, “translate” and “transfer” that having nothing to do with this. Nursing Critical Thinking College? I hate to of Taunton, think that a couple decades down the nursing critical thinking College road, those words will become outmoded because their meanings have become imbued with intractable connotations of gender issues. Aren’t there any better alternatives? I get around this by using the a critique School term “gender-variant”, which does not have loaded assumptions about nursing critical, identity in completion of Taunton School, it. Also, trans means “across” gender, which was intended to mean anyone who does not identify with the nursing critical thinking Brighton College gender assigned at birth. Harvard Busines College? It is an umbrella term to refer to gender diversity as well. Brighton? There is other language out School, there, it is just not used. Regardless, great article, thanks for Brighton sharing! And thanks to the folks who contributed to thinking podcast Istituto Marangoni, the conversation as well! #128578;

[…] on 10/13/2013. Nursing Critical Brighton College? Usage note: “Trans*” was a common convention in critical thinking Warminster, 2013 but is generally no longer used. I no longer use it but have preserved it in reposts in which it originally occurred for nursing Brighton […] Hi, thank you for this article. I appreciate your ideas and the helpful (and thoughtful) replies you have made to Wrekin College, the comments. I think, personally, I still believe in using the asterisk, and nursing thinking Brighton College, I explain a bit as to why here. But that aside, I want to ask if you can clarify something? You mention that drag performers who identify as cisgender do not fall under the umbrella because their experiences are not exactly the same. Critical Istituto London? But the same to whose? There is nursing thinking Brighton such diversity under this umbrella. And, I understand that in the Western world, many drag performers do not face a great deal of discrimination – though some do, of course.

However, in South Africa, where I began doing drag, we faced tremendous discrimination. I myself did not identify as cis, but my drag brothers and sisters did, and of Taunton, so finding camaraderie and shared fear of nursing crossing gender boundaries with others in the trans community proved very helpful. So this may in part a cultural privilege to do drag and not deal with discrimination or backlash. Also, I think whether a drag performer identifies as cis may in a way be moot because it is thinking Marangoni London how others view them. And must one be identified by others as gender bending all the nursing thinking time (not just Saturday nights) in order to qualify as trans?

Because, if it requires that one always be facing potential discrimination, then post-op, fully ‘passing’ people may in a way be exempt from being trans. However, I realise there is a difference between one is afraid that their Saturday night adventure will be found out and one is afraid that their birth sex will be found out. Of course the latter is usually more frightening. But they are both afraid of being ‘outed’ for transgressing gender lines. I suppose what I am saying is that it may not really be possible to fully delineate drag performers who otherwise live as cispeople from the trans umbrella, though they would probably be at how to paragraph Sciences the periphery.

Anyone who purposefully challenges gender norms and thinking Brighton, faces discrimination for it should, I believe, be allowed to identify with the trans community. In a way it comes down to semantics, but I think that drag performers shouldn’t all be clumped together – their experiences and circumstances (and reasoning) are quite diverse, even amongst those who live ‘cis’ lives most of the time. Thanks for reading, I really look forward to your thoughts on how to a body paragraph for an essay Hanze Sciences this!

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2017-2018 Stanford GSB MBA Essay Topic Analysis. Since the Stanford Graduate School of critical thinking Brighton, Business just released its essay questions for the 2017-2018 admissions season, we are following up with some advice for writing paper School, GSB applicants on how to approach Stanford’s essays. Stanford has asked applicants to respond to thinking College the same two questions it has asked the past few years, maintaining the 1,150 word limit from critical podcast Istituto Marangoni, last year, with the allowance of 50 more words for those applying to both the MBA and MBx programs. Let’s take a closer look at each of nursing thinking Brighton College, Stanford’s required essays. What matters most to write a body paragraph essay of Applied Sciences you, and why? (Suggested Word Count: 750 words) For this essay, we would like you to: Do some deep self-examination, so you can genuinely illustrate who you are and how you came to nursing critical thinking Brighton be the person you are. Share the assessing critical Warminster insights, experiences, and lessons that shaped your perspectives, rather than focusing merely on what you’ve done or accomplished.

Write from the heart, and thinking illustrate how a person, situation, or event has influenced you. Focus on thinking Istituto the “why” rather than the “what.” Stanford’s “What Matters Most” essay is one of the most challenging prompts from a top business school. An answer to this essay has the potential to be profound and reveal a side of an applicant that the admissions committee cannot find anywhere else in the application, which is why Stanford has asked this question for more than a dozen years. However, the nursing critical College question can be quite intimidating in the context of a strategic application. Critical Thinking School? Part of the nursing thinking reason that so many applicants struggle with this topic is because they opt to begin their brainstorming by searching for a direct answer to the question of how to a body paragraph for an essay University of Applied, “what matters most”—rifling through common themes like ‘helping others’, ‘the pursuit of knowledge’, ‘revolutionizing an industry’, and any number of textbook replies. With each passing idea, candidates find themselves losing steam and fearful of getting lost in the shuffle of applicants who espouse similar views. While starting with an answer to “what matters most” and working into the body of the essay does seem tempting (and even quite logical), our years of experience advising Stanford GSB candidates tell us that this is often a dead-end. The good news is that we have another approach that has been wildly successful for more than 10 years. The advice we are about to offer here may seem counterintuitive, but we actually encourage applicants to nursing thinking Brighton ‘work backwards’ when crafting this essay via a simple exercise (outlined below). In short, since the purpose of critical thinking, this question is to let the critical thinking Brighton College admissions team get to know you better, you should start with who you are and all that you have experienced and accomplished, and then work backwards to completion School find the overarching theme of “what matters most.” Keep in mind that your direct ‘answer’ to the question here is NOT what is going to make you stand out (it may even be somewhat pedestrian), rather it is the series of anecdotes and supporting evidence you provide around that theme that will help you convey your unique candidacy to the admissions team. Critical Brighton? So in short, if you find yourself struggling with how to harvard review answer this question, try this simple exercise: Write down the College 15 to 20 most important events, accomplishments, interests, or experiences in your life.

Include the good, the bad, the astounding, the critical Warminster ugly, etc. Also, remember that no time frame is off limits–think of events from your early childhood to the present day. Look at the list you have generated and try to determine the themes that unify the important events, interests, and ideas in your life. Select a small number of diverse items from the list that best support a given theme and thinking use them to define your approach and critical thinking podcast Istituto Marangoni kick off the drafting process for the essay. This exercise of College, working backwards allows you to not only arrive at a “what matters most” theme that really resonates with you, but also helps you find specific examples and anecdotes to help you show how you have explored what matters most to you in your life. Writing Paper Ross School? Why Stanford? (Suggested Word Count: 400 words; 450 for applicants to both the MBA and MBx programs) Enlighten us on how earning your MBA at Stanford will enable you to realize your ambitions. Explain your decision to pursue graduate education in management. Explain the distinctive opportunities you will pursue at Stanford. If you are applying to both the MBA and MSx programs, use Essay B to address your interest in both programs.

Stanford’s second essay steps away from the philosophical to focus on the candidate’s career goals and reasons for going to Stanford. Although this essay is more specific than Essay A, the nursing critical Brighton College “Why Stanford?” prompt is far less specific than the career goals questions of other top business schools. Instead of mapping out a specific career path in this essay, applicants should focus on defining the broad impact they hope to busines make on critical Brighton a service, a sector, or society at large through their chosen career. Essay B is a critique paper strongest when it connects with Essay A. Essay A is your opportunity to lay out a philosophical explanation of what matters most to you, while Essay B gives you the nursing critical Brighton College opportunity to show how you would use your time at academic writing University, Stanford and your career to further what matters most to critical thinking College you. In Stanford’s additional prompting for this question, the admissions committee asks you to “explain the distinctive opportunities you will pursue at Stanford.” The key word in that sentence is distinctive . In this essay, you need to show the admissions committee that Stanford offers you benefits you can’t find at critical thinking podcast Istituto Marangoni London, any other schools. Talk about specific classes, programs, collaboration with other parts of the school, dual degree offerings, clubs, conferences, or other offerings that set Stanford apart from other top business schools. Learning about the school’s curriculum, special programs and extracurricular activities—whether through a visit to critical Brighton campus, conversation with alumni or reading the writing a critique Ross Clear Admit School Guide to Stanford—will help you craft a response to Essay B that really stands out. Thanks for reading our analysis of this year’s GSB MBA essay topics. Nursing Brighton College? As you work on your GSB MBA essays and application, we encourage you to consider all of Clear Admit’s Stanford offerings: Stanford GSB Profile on the Clear Admit website: up-to-date advice and School admissions information Clear Admit GSB School Snapshot: overview of key curricular details and application information Clear Admit GSB School Guide: in-depth program and campus information and side-by-side school comparisons; everything you need to know for a successful application! Clear Admit LiveWire: admissions updates submitted in real time by applicants to Stanford GSB Clear Admit DecisionWire: school selections in real-time by admits to nursing College Stanford GSB.

If you liked this article, let Clear Admit know by clicking Like . The author Clear Admit gets email notifications for harvard review College, all questions or replies to this post.

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essay on birds nest Avian Reproduction: Nests. Birds use nests to protect eggs and nestlings from predators and nursing thinking Brighton adverse weather. Assessing Critical? To minimize predation, birds may use or build nests that are inaccessible, hidden, or camouflaged. Nests may also help keep eggs and nestlings warm.

and even the late Triassic. This indicates that the even the earliest birds built nests to nursing protect their eggs and young (From: Chiappe 2009). The position of vegetation (curved black bars) around Horned Lark nests relative to the direction of write Hanze University of Applied, prevailing winds. The dashed circle represents the outline of a nest. Each individual curved black bar represents the vegetation around one nest. Nursing Critical Brighton? Each solid circle represents one entrance orientation. The dashed line designates the mean entrance orientation angle of 345 for all nests (n = 10; Hartman and Oring 2003). Types of nests: Scrape nests are simple depressions in the ground (sometimes with a few stones added) or in academic writing Deakin (Navitas), the leaf litter. Such nests are used by critical thinking Brighton, some penguins, shorebirds, gulls, terns, nighthawks, vultures (e.g., Black Vulture nest below), and other species.

Blacksmith Plover nest. Pectoral Sandpipers nest on the arctic tundra, often near water. The nest is lined with grass, moss and lichens. Typical clutch size is 4 eggs. Burrow nests are very effective at protecting eggs and young from predators maintaining an critical thinking, appropriate microclimate for eggs young. Some birds, like Bank Swallows and Belted Kingfishers (pictured below), usually construct their own burrows, while others, such as Burrowing Owls, may use burrows contructed by other species.

Excavation of 30 tunnels. Three of the five coalescing groups led to double-length nest chambers with two grass-mat nests. Vertical separations (e.g., 8 cm between tunnels 8 and 9) indicate where neighboring tunnels crossed w/out coalescing. Area A = 4.26 sq. m determined by visual framing of a too. regularly spaced burrows of nursing, a bank swallow colony. A' = 7.37 sq. Writing (Navitas)? m is the area on which 27 (solid circle) burrows leading to a nest would have to be distributed. to equate their observed average nearest neighbor distance. r to its random expectation E[r].

Open circles represent. 6 tunnels not leading to a nest (not included in. Mites and birds -- At least 2500 species of mites from 40 families are closely associated with birds, occupying all conceivable habitats in the nests and on the bodies of their hosts. No avian taxon is free from a mite associate because even those that lack feather mites, such as penguins, are attacked by thinking College, ticks. Bird mites can be divided into those that dwell primarily in, or near, the nest and those that reside mainly on the body of the host. The best studied nest-dwelling mites are blood feeders from the genera Dermanyssus and busines review Ornithonyssus (shown here is a micrograph of a female Ornithonyssus bursa , a common nest parasite of passerines. Scale bar = 100 μm. Micrograph from Dave Walter, University of nursing critical thinking College, Queensland) . Depending on the species involved, adults of these blood feeders live in the nest or on academic article Deakin (Navitas) the hosts, but nymphal stages are primarily nestbound and only visit hosts when they need to feed. These mites have short generation times and can rapidly build-up huge populations. Brighton? For example, half a million northern fowl mites have been extracted from a single nest. Ticks can also be temporary nest parasites.

Soft ticks visit the host at night, feed for write a body paragraph of Applied Sciences, a few minutes and then retreat to a refuge in, or near, the nest. Hard ticks tend not to be so nestbound and will attack birds as they brush against vegetation during foraging or resting. However, not all nest mites are parasitic. Relatives of human-associated ‘dust mites’ feed on the dermal detritus that sifts down into the nest material. Other nest dwelling mites prey on blood-sucking mites, and thus might act as mutualists.

Blood-feeding nest mites can reduce the reproductive success of their hosts by slowing development or even killing chicks. Thinking Brighton? For example, recent experimental work has shown that high densities of nest mites are associated with low hematocrit and how to write a body paragraph for an University small body size in Pied Flycatchers ( Ficedula hypoleuca ), and low hatching success and postfledging survival in College, Rock Pigeons ( Columba livia ) and Barn Swallows ( Hirundo rustica ). By contrast, however, Darolová et al. (1997) observed a positive association between the percentage of Penduline Tit ( Remiz pendulinus ) nestlings that survived to fledging and the number of hematophagous mites in thinking podcast Istituto London, the nest. Nursing Critical Thinking? The authors suggest that nestling health determines mite load rather than vice versa. Writing A Critique School? Other researchers have found no relationship between nestparasite density and nesting success. Merino and Potti (1996) suggested that variable effects of nest parasites are, in nursing critical Brighton College, part, a result of stochastic climatic factors, such as temperature and rainfall. More work is required to how to paragraph essay Hanze University Sciences establish why the effects of nest mites on host reproductive success are so variable across studies. -- Proctor and Owens (2000). Cavity nests (e.g., in trees or cacti) are used by numerous passerines, woodpeckers, owls, parrots, and some waterfowl. Critical Brighton? Some birds, such as woodpeckers (like the writing, Gila Woodpecker below), construct their own cavity nests and are referred to as primary cavity nesters.

Species that use natural cavities or cavities constructed by primary cavity nesters are called secondary cavity nesters. Pileated Woodpecker nest cavity. Platform nests are relatively flat nests that may be located on the ground, in a tree, or on the tops of rooted vegetation or or debris in shallow water (like the Western Grebe nest below). Common Buzzard ( Buteo buteo ) nest. Bird nests vary from a simple accumulation of materials on nursing critical thinking Brighton College the ground to elaborate refuges in harvard busines review Wrekin, or on secluded elevated substrates. Dial (2003) observed that nest construction and placement are correlated with other features such as flight ability.

For example, basal avian taxa (ratites many Galliformes) create a simple depression in Brighton, the ground to harbor their incubating eggs, like those of harvard busines review, nonavian dinosaurs. The progression of nest complexity moves from cryptic ground nests of some galliforms to simple elevated nests (e.g., Columbiformes, Cuculiformes, Ciconiiformes). Taxa that construct elevated nests in a bush or tree or on a cliff or rock ledge tend to be better fliers than simple ground nesters.Young raised in elevated cavity nests, including primary (Psittaciformes, Piciformes, Coraciformes) and secondary (many Passeriformes) cavity nesters, have a robust forelimb flight apparatus, and less hindlimb mass, which is consistent with increasing flight capacity. Nursing Thinking Brighton College? As nest placement (e.g. invisibility, inaccessibility), construction (e.g. impregnability, camouflage), and attendance (e.g. feeding, protection, incubation) increase in complexity, a concomitant enhancement of flight styles is observed, including maneuverability and acceleration. The most complex nests are associated with some Passeriformes, particularly swallows, oropendolas, and weaver finches. Weaver finches (Ploceidae, Passeridae) and oropendolas (Icteridae) build intricately woven chambered, pendant nests hung from the resilient thin branches of bushes and trees in predator-rich environments. Perhaps the most predator-proof nests are those of swallows (Hirundinidae) and swifts (Apodidae) that often construct mud encasements secured to the most remote overhanging feature within their habitat (e.g. cliffs and completion of Taunton human-made structures) (Dial 2003). Cupped nests are, of course, cup-shaped. Nursing Critical College? Such nests may be constructed of various materials and in a variety of locations. Pettingill (1985) categorized cup nests as follows: statant cupped nests - nests located in the crotches and branches of trees and shrubs and supported mainly from below.

Many passerines and hummingbirds build such nests (check this short video). Rufous-tailed Hummingbird (Costa Rica) Nest surface area and nest predation rates for 36 altricial bird species studied in tropical Venezuela. and temperate Arizona. Nest predation increased with nest surface area at both field sites. Nest size and nest predation -- Latitudinal variation in clutch sizes of birds is paper Ross, a well described, but poorly understood pattern. Many hypotheses have been proposed, but few have been experimentally tested, and none have been universally accepted by researchers. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for nursing Brighton, smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by harvard review Wrekin, shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings in the nest. Nursing Critical Brighton College? Biancucci and Martin (2010) tested this hypothesis with an experiment in a tropical forest and a comparative study between temperate and tropical field sites and, specifically, tested if: (i) predation rates increased with nest size, (ii) tropical birds had smaller nests controlled for body size, and (iii) clutch size was explained by nest size controlled for body size. Experimental swapping of nests of different sizes showed that nest predation increased with nest size in article writing University (Navitas), the tropical site. Moreover, nest predation rates were higher in species with larger nests at both sites.

However, nest size, corrected for body mass and phylogeny, did not differ between sites and was not related to clutch size between sites. Nursing Thinking Brighton College? Hence, nest predation can exert selection on nest size as predicted by the hypothesis. Nest size increased with adult body mass, such that adult size might indirectly influence reproductive success through effects on nest size and how to write Hanze University of Applied Sciences nest predation risk. Ultimately, however, selection from nursing critical thinking Brighton, nest predation on nest size does not explain the smaller clutch sizes typical of the tropics. suspended cupped nests - nests not supported from below but from the harvard review Wrekin College, rims, sides, or both: pensile - nests suspended from the rims and sides; rather stiff, e.g., those of kinglets and vireos (like the Black-capped Vireo pictured below) White-eyed Vireo nest pendulous - nests suspended from the rims and sides; rather flexible and deep, like those of orioles.

Baya Weavers ( Ploceus phillipinus ) nest in colonies of up to thinking Brighton College 20-30 pairs, usually in trees near freshwater and critical Warminster School open ground. Their nests hang from a branch and thinking College look like an upside-down flask. A long tube leads to a side entrance, making. it difficult even for snakes to enter the nest. Nests are made entirely out of strips of grass that the birds collect by cutting. a notch in some tall grass, then stripping off a 30-60 cm long piece. Assessing Critical School? A newly-made nest is green with fresh grass and turns.

brown as the grass dries. A bird may make up to critical College 500 trips to paper Ross complete a nest. adherent nests - cupped nests whose sides are attached by an adhesive substance (e.g., mud or saliva) to a vertical surface, like those of nursing critical College, swifts and some swallows (see Barn Swallow nest below) Chimney Swift using saliva as glue to harvard Wrekin College help support its nest. Saliva 'solidified' and College forming arch over Chimney Swift nest to help hold it against the wall. ground nests - cupped nests on the ground; sides are sometimes extended upward and completion of Taunton School arched over the top making a domed structure. Several passerines, particularly those that occupy open habitats like grasslands and critical thinking Brighton tundra, build ground nests. Hemispherical photo of the vegetative canopy over a White-crowned Sparrow nest. Academic Article? Nests often have less vegetative cover in the. eastern sky, allowing more solar radiation to strike nests in the morning when ambient temperatures are cooler (From: Walsberg and King 1978).

Nest microclimates can be influenced by where open-cup nests are located. Shrub-nesting White-crowned Sparrows ( Zonotrichia leucophrys ) appear to consider the vegetation canopy when determining where to build nests. Walsberg and King (1978) examined the distribution of vegetation located above nests at a high-altitude site (1890 m) in Oregon and found that most nests were positioned so that they were more exposed to sunlight (75% more on average) in the morning when ambient temperatures were lower than the afternoon when temperatures were higher. This difference in exposure to solar radiation likely helped warm nests and their contents during cool mornings and reduced the likelihood of overheating during warmer afternoons. Typical nest location for Brighton, a female Broad-tailed Hummingbird with a branch above the nest serving as a ‘roof’ (From: Calder 1973). Nest microclimates may, in academic article writing Deakin University, some cases, be as important for adult birds as for embryos and nestlings. Some hummingbirds nest at high latitude and high altitude locations where the combination of their high metabolic rates and sometimes cool ambient temperatures (particularly at night) may make balancing energy budgets difficult. Thinking? Incubating and Wrekin College brooding female hummingbirds can, of course, conserve energy at night by entering torpor. However, even after allowing their body temperatures to drop, hummingbirds may still lose heat via radiation when ambient temperatures are lower than their body temperature.

To reduce such heat loss, female hummingbirds often build nests with at least partial branch ‘roofs.’ Such ‘roofs’ help reduce heat lost by radiation because the hummingbirds are less exposed to the cold night sky (Calder 1973). Proportions of nests found or visited during nest-building ( N = 46), egg-laying ( N = 62), and nestling stages ( N = 67) that contained at least some scat. Drawing source: Myers et al. (2005) Preen waxes that produce less odor -- It has long been recognized that nest depredation by olfactory-searching mammals greatly influences the reproductive success of thinking Brighton College, ground-nesting birds. Yet adaptations of birds to article University (Navitas) diminish smell during nesting have rarely been investigated. Recently, a remarkable shift in the composition of uropygial gland secretions (preen waxes) was discovered in many ground-nesting shorebirds and ducks that begin incubation, during which the usual mixtures of monoester preen waxes are replaced by mixtures of less volatile diester waxes (see figure below). Reneerkens et al. (2005) showed experimentally that an Brighton, olfactory-searching dog had greater difficulty detecting mixtures of the assessing Warminster, less volatile diesters than mixtures of monoesters. This is consistent with the hypothesis that diester preen waxes reduce birds' smell and thereby reduce predation risk (check this video!).

Secretions of the uropygial gland (left), also called preen waxes, are applied by birds to their plumage. These waxes repel water and nursing critical Brighton inhibit the growth of feather-degrading bacteria. Seasonal changes in chemical composition of preen waxes of adults in 19 species of sandpipers. Species are listed from. top to bottom on writing a critique Ross School the basis of median latitude of their breeding range, with the northernmost species first. Squares = monoesters, triangles = mixture of mono- and nursing thinking diesters, filled circles = diesters (From: Reneerken et al. 2002). Few studies have focused on the question of how to write a body for an essay University of Applied, whether nest building by birds in an innate behavior or is, at least to critical thinking Brighton some extent, learned.

Two lines of evidence suggest that nest building has a large instinctive component: (1) the structure and composition of nests exhibit little intraspecific variation, and (2) birds raised in of Taunton, isolation tend to build species-specific nests. However, particularly for birds that build more complex nests, evidence indicates that birds learn by thinking Brighton, experience and, as a result, the quality of nests built by older birds may exceed that of nests built by of Taunton School, younger, less experienced birds. For example, the first nests of young male Village Weavers ( Ploceus cucullatus ) are more loosely and crudely constructed than nests built by more experienced males. Left, nest built by nursing critical Brighton, older, experienced male Village Weaver and, right, the first nest built by a young male. (Collias and Collias 1964).

Another way of examining the extent to write a body essay University which nest building is innate versus learned is to determine the nursing critical thinking Brighton College, degree of repeatability of nest morphology, with greater repeatability indicating a behavior with a greater genetic component. Among some species of birds, nest morphology has been found to be very repeatable. For example, Barn Swallows ( Hirundo rustica ) build cup-shaped nests using mud and straw. Characteristics of the nests of individual swallows were found to critical thinking Marangoni be consistent both within and between years and, in addition, the characteristics of nests were even similar across generations, suggesting that nest building by thinking Brighton, Barn Swallows has a heritable component and is a largely instinctive behavior (Møller 2006). Harvard? Similarly, the nests of individual Penduline Tits ( Remiz pendulinus ) exhibit little variation across seasons (Schleicher et al. 1996). In contrast, the nests of individual Southern Masked ( Ploceus velatus ) and Village weavers exhibited less repeatability, and nests of both species changed as individuals built more nests (Walsh et al. Critical Thinking Brighton College? 2010; Figure below). Such results suggest that, for many species of how to essay University of Applied Sciences, birds, nest building is primarily if not entirely instinctive. However, at least for thinking Brighton, species that build more complex nests, such as weavers (Ploceidae), nest construction involves both instinct (especially for first nests) and learning. A series of six nests built by a male Southern Masked Weaver (first nest, upper left, and last nest, lower right) (From: Walsh et al.

2010). The time needed to build a nest varies with the harvard review College, complexity of the nest and other factors such as time of year and weather. In temperate areas, construction of the first nest of the nursing Brighton, breeding season may take longer than nests later in the season (particular in resident species like Eastern Bluebirds and Northern Cardinals). Generally, passerines build nests over a period of a few days (Table below). Construction of the nests of how to write a body Hanze University of Applied Sciences, some larger birds, such as raptors, may require as long as several weeks. Woodpeckers excavate nest cavities in tree trunks or branches, a process that, for species found in North America, typically takes anywhere from 6 to 36 days (Table below). Time needed for representative songbirds to nursing thinking Brighton College complete their open-cup nests.

Typical time to. Tarof and Briskie 2008. Hopp et al. 1995. Proudfoot et al. 2000. Farquhar and Ritchie 2002. Swanson et al. Completion Of Taunton School? 2008. Kren and Zoerb 1997. Sallabanks and James 1999. Smith et al. 2011. Witmer et al. 1997. Lowther et al. 1999. Halkin and nursing critical thinking College Linville 1999. Holcomb and Twiest 1968. Scharf and Kren 2010.

Time needed for representative woodpeckers to create nest cavites. Typical time to. create nest cavity. Dixon and Saab 2000. Husak and Maxwell 1998. Bull and how to write a body paragraph Hanze of Applied Jackson 2011. Shackelford et al. Nursing Thinking Brighton College? 2000. Smith et al. School? 2000. Garrett et al.

1996. These engineers really soar -- If you have any doubt that birds are master builders, try this: Get a bunch of thin twigs and grass and try making a nest yourself. And no fair using your hands – birds, remember, only use their beaks. Douglas Causey of Harvard University's Museum of Comparative Zoology has asked young students to do just that. You can imagine the College, result. But if you think making a simple nest is difficult, imagine building a more elaborate nest.

Take, for critical thinking London, example: A South American ovenbird (Rufous Hornero, Furnarius rufus ), which may take months to nursing critical Brighton fashion one nest from writing (Navitas), clay or mud mixed with bits of straw, hair, and fibers. The tropical sun bakes the walls brick-hard. A pair of horneros constructing a nest (time lapse). Or Bald Eagles that use sticks, some two inches thick and several feet long, to nursing critical College make nests sturdy enough to support a human adult. They may look like a jumble of materials, but the sticks are usually placed in layers, beginning with a triangle, followed by more rotated, triangular layers. Birds are capable of grand engineering feats. Harvard Review Wrekin College? But are they engineers? Not in the way you might think. Just as birds know how to fly, they know how to College build a nest without instructions or apprenticeship. It's a matter of instinct. They are 'hard-wired,' Causey says, sort of like robots.

Birds craft their nests without consciously thinking about it. How then did some species of birds develop such well-engineered, elaborate nests? One possible explanation involves natural variation and evolution. If a particular bird happens to build a nest that is stronger or more predator-safe, that bird's offspring are more likely to survive and pass along this trait to succeeding generations. Another possibility is that when females choose mates based on the quality of the nests they build, this means the best nest builders are more likely to breed. Nest-building, therefore, may still be evolving, but so slowly that no one really detects any change.

This makes nest-building one of the most difficult bird behaviors to understand. Generally, in temperate areas, nest-building coincides with the arrival of spring. That's when birds' internal clocks tell them it's time to mate and raise a brood. In the tropics, though, some birds build nests and breed year-round. The nest, of course, is where females lay eggs and brood young. Which bird actually does the building – the male or female – varies by species. In some cases, both collect material to build the nest and join in its construction. One of the more peculiar routines is that of the thinking podcast Istituto, male Marsh Wren ( Cistothorus palustris ), which migrates north before the female and builds as many as 10 dummy nests in his territory. Thinking College? These dummy nests are not lined with soft materials; lining is completion of Taunton School, added by the female only to critical thinking the chosen nest.

Dummy nests have been shown to have adaptive importance, with active nests built near larger numbers of dummy nests being more successful than those near fewer dummy nests (Leonard and Picman 1987). We usually think of nests in tree branches. But some birds build nests on the ground, some in bushes. Harvard College? Others might attach their nests to the sides of cliffs. Barn Swallows have an affinity for barns. Chimney Swifts, as the name implies, favor chimneys and other man-made enclosures. Carolina Wrens will nest in nursing critical thinking Brighton, almost any cavity, from an empty can to a coat pocket. Writing A Critique Paper Ross? To keep nests together and secured in place, birds need good adhesives. They use a variety of natural substances to do the job, including mud, saliva, spiderwebs, caterpillar silk, leaf mold, and certain plant fibers. Materials that make up the nest are intertwined, and nursing Brighton with the weaver bird, are actually woven or thatched together using grass, strips of leaves, and twigs.

Birds can make hundreds of trips to collect materials. And while they seem to prefer natural objects (helpful as camouflage), some use almost anything that works and that they can carry. Critical Thinking Podcast Istituto London? Candy wrappers, cellophane, shredded money – even barbed wire – have shown up in nests. But however coarse the outside of the nest is, the inside is usually lined with soft materials to make it comfy. One theory about why birds build open nests is that they had to. Larger species shooed them out of the tree holes.

Birds intent on nursing critical avoiding bullies and predators may build nests that have coverings or that hang from the end of how to a body essay University Sciences, tree branches. Less aggressive birds may even build near more aggressive species, for protection. Although some large birds (eagles, hawks, and sea birds) return to nests they've made, most birds rarely do. Eagles may return annually to the huge platform nests they build in the treetops. Some measure as much as 6 feet in diameter. On the Brighton College, flip side are hummingbirds, which fashion tiny cup-like nests not much bigger than a thimble. Nest-collecting was popular from about 1870 to 1920, says Douglas Causey, ornithologist at Harvard University. Most of the nests in the museum's collection date to that period.

Back then, collectors didn't have the ecological awareness that people have today. Thinking Marangoni? They would climb trees and saw off branches to collect a nest – with its eggs intact. Once museums had at least one of each, searching for more made no sense. From about 1920 to 1970, nest and egg collections gathered dust. They just took up space, and no one knew what to nursing critical do with them, Causey says. Some were thrown away.

During the 1970s, though, interest in bird eggs came back. Scientists noticed that eggshells of critical thinking Warminster School, some birds had become thinner and more breakable. The insecticide DDT was found to nursing thinking Brighton be the cause. Researchers compared the thickness of old eggshells with new. Their findings helped persuade Congress to ban the pesticide. Writing A Critique Paper School? Without eggs from 100 years ago, no comparisons could have been made.

Egg and nest collections are important time capsules. They tell of environmental conditions at particular times. This, Causey says, is a good reason to collect more today. Researchers are now examining the nursing critical Brighton, old plant material in nests to thinking School determine how much carbon monoxide was in the atmosphere decades ago. In the United States, it is unlawful to collect the nests of migratory birds, unless for approved scientific study. Critical College? Although not strictly enforced, the law exists to protect birds in the wild from disturbance. When ornithologists study a nest, they know that if it has been unattended for several days, it's usually safe to completion conclude that the birds have gone and thinking Brighton won't be back. Thinking Podcast Istituto? -- Ross Atkin (Copyright 2002 The Christian Science Monitor). Bent, A. C. 1939. Life histories of North American woodpeckers. U.S.

National Museum Bulletin 174, Washington, D.C. Bull, E. L., and J. A. Jackson. 2011. Pileated Woodpecker ( Dryocopus pileatus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Calder, W. A. 1973. Microhabitat selection during nesting of hummingbirds in the Rocky Mountains. Ecology 54: 127-134. Collias, E. C., and N. E. Critical Brighton? Collias.

1964. The development of nest-building behavior in a weaverbird. Auk 81: 42-52. Darolova, A., H. Hoi, and B. Schleicher. 1997.

The effect of ectoparasite nest load on the breeding biology of the Penduline Tit Remiz pendulinus . Completion Of Taunton? Ibis 139: 115-120. Dawson, W. R. 1997. Nursing Critical Thinking College? Pine Siskin ( Spinus pinus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Dixon, R. D., and Istituto London V. A. Thinking Brighton? Saab. 2000.

Black-backed Woodpecker ( Picoides arcticus ). Assessing Critical School? In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Critical? Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Farquhar, C. C., and K. L. Critical Thinking Podcast London? Ritchie. 2002. Black-tailed Gnatcatcher ( Polioptila melanura ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online:

Garrett, K. Nursing Thinking College? L., M. G. Raphael and R. Academic Article Writing University (Navitas)? D. Dixon. 1996. Critical Thinking? White-headed Woodpecker ( Picoides albolarvatus ). In: The Birds of completion of Taunton School, North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of thinking, Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Greenlaw, J. Paper School? S. 1996. Eastern Towhee ( Pipilo erythrophthalmus ). In: The Birds of thinking Brighton, North America Online (A. Article? Poole, ed.). Nursing Critical Thinking College? Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the of Taunton, Birds of North America Online: Halkin, S. L., and S. U. Critical Thinking? Linville. Academic Writing Deakin University? 1999.

Northern Cardinal ( Cardinalis cardinalis ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Hartman, C.A. and L. W. Oring. 2003.

Orientation and microclimate of Horned Lark nests: the importance of shade. Condor 105:158-163. Holcomb, L. C., and Brighton G. Twiest. 1968. Ecological factors affecting nest building in Red-winged Blackbirds. Academic Article University? Bird-Banding 39: 14-22.

Hopp, S. L., A. Kirby, and C. A. Critical? Boone. 1995. White-eyed Vireo ( Vireo griseus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the of Taunton School, Birds of North America Online: Husak, M. S., and nursing thinking Brighton T. C. Maxwell. 1998.

Golden-fronted Woodpecker ( Melanerpes aurifrons ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Kren, J., and A. C. Zoerb. School? 1997. Northern Wheatear ( Oenanthe oenanthe ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.).

Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Brighton College, Birds of North America Online: Leonard, M.L. and J. Write For An Essay Hanze University Of Applied? Picman. 1987. The adaptive significance of multiple nest building by male Marsh Wrens. Animal Behaviour 35:271-277. Lowther, P. Nursing Critical Thinking Brighton College? E., C. Celada, N. K. Klein, C. C. Rimmer and D. A. Spector. 1999. Yellow Warbler ( Dendroica petechia ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Merino, S. and J. Potti.

1996. Weather dependent effects of School, nest ectoparasites on their bird hosts. Ecography 19: 107113. Middleton, A. L. 1998. Chipping Sparrow ( Spizella passerina ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Nursing Critical Thinking Brighton? Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Møller, A. P. 2006. Rapid change in nest size of a bird related to change in a secondary sexual character. Behavioral Ecology 17: 108-116.

Mowbray, T. B. 1999. Scarlet Tanager ( Piranga olivacea ). Write A Body Of Applied? In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the nursing thinking Brighton College, Birds of North America Online: Myers, P., R. Busines College? Espinosa, C. S. Nursing Critical College? Parr, T. Jones, G. S. School? Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2005. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed November 27, 2005 at

Payne, R. B. 2006. Indigo Bunting ( Passerina cyanea ). Critical Thinking Brighton? In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Petit, C., M. Academic Article Writing (Navitas)? Hossaert-McKey, P. Perret, J. Blondel M.M. Lambrechts. 2002.

Blue Tits use selected plants and olfaction to maintain an critical thinking Brighton, aromatic environment for thinking Istituto, nestlings. Ecology Letters 5: 585 - 589. Pettingill, O.S., Jr. 1985. Ornithology in Laboratory and Field, Fifth ed. Academic Press, New York, NY. Proudfoot, G. A., D. A. Critical Thinking? Sherry, and S. Johnson. 2000. Cactus Wren ( Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus ). Harvard Busines College? In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.).

Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Ritchison, G. Critical Thinking College? 1999. Harvard? Downy Woodpecker. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA. Sallabanks, R., and F. C. James. 1999. American Robin ( Turdus migratorius ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Scharf, W. C., and J. Critical Thinking College? Kren. 2010.

Orchard Oriole ( Icterus spurius ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Article Writing Deakin University (Navitas)? Cornell Lab of nursing critical thinking Brighton College, Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of write essay Sciences, North America Online: Schleicher, B., H. Hoi, and F. Valera. Critical Thinking? 1996. Seasonal change in female mate choice criteria in Penduline Tits ( Remiz pendulinus ) . Ardeola 43: 1929. Shackelford, C. E., R. E. Brown, and R. N. How To For An Essay Hanze Of Applied Sciences? Conner.

2000. Red-bellied Woodpecker ( Melanerpes carolinus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Critical Thinking College? Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of review Wrekin, Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Smith, R. J., M. I. Hatch, D. Nursing Brighton College? A. Cimprich and F. R. Moore. 2011.

Gray Catbird ( Dumetella carolinensis ). How To A Body Paragraph For An Essay Of Applied? In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Smith, K. G., J. H. Withgott, and P. G. Rodewald. 2000. Red-headed Woodpecker ( Melanerpes erythrocephalus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Critical? Cornell Lab of harvard review College, Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of thinking, North America Online:

Swanson, D. L., J. Critical Thinking? L. Nursing Critical? Ingold, and G. E. Wallace. 2008. Ruby-crowned Kinglet ( Regulus calendula ). Harvard Busines College? In: The Birds of nursing critical College, North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Busines Wrekin? Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Tarof, S., and critical thinking College J. V. Briskie. 2008. Least Flycatcher ( Empidonax minimus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.).

Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Tomback, D. How To Write A Body Paragraph For An Essay Hanze University Sciences? F. 1998. Clark's Nutcracker ( Nucifraga columbiana ). Critical Brighton? In: The Birds of writing, North America Online (A. Nursing Thinking Brighton? Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of School, North America Online: Walsberg, G. E., and J. R. King. 1978. The heat budget of nursing critical, incubating Mountain White-crowned Sparrows ( Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha ) in Oregon.

Physiological Zoology 51: 92-103. Walsh, P. T., M. Hansell, W. Writing A Critique? D. Critical Thinking Brighton College? Borello, and S. D. Healy. 2010. Repeatability of nest morphology in African weaver birds. Biology Letters 6: 149-151.